Advertisement

Journal of Applied Phycology

, Volume 30, Issue 3, pp 1821–1832 | Cite as

Aboriginal uses of seaweeds in temperate Australia: an archival assessment

  • Ruth H. Thurstan
  • Zoё Brittain
  • David S. Jones
  • Elizabeth Cameron
  • Jennifer Dearnaley
  • Alecia BellgroveEmail author
Article

Abstract

Global demand for seaweed has increased dramatically over recent decades and the potential for seaweed aquaculture to address issues around food security and climate-change mitigation are being recognised. Australia is a global hotspot for seaweed biodiversity with a rich, diverse Indigenous history dating back 65,000 years, including an extensive traditional knowledge of Australian natural resources. In our present review of archival literature, we explored the contemporary and historical uses and cultural significance of seaweeds to Indigenous Australians. We found records of seaweed use by Indigenous Saltwater Australians (Australian Aboriginal peoples from coastal areas across the nation who are the Traditional Owners/Guardians and custodians of the lands and waters characterised by saltwater environment) for a variety of purposes including cultural activities, ceremonial activities, medicinal uses, clothing, cultural history, food, fishing, shelter and domestic uses. Species-specific records were rarely recorded (and/or accurately translated) in the archival literature, with the exception of the use of the fucoid bull kelp, Durvillaea potatorum, which was prevalent. Our research is a step forward in the important task of recovering and conserving Indigenous Australian knowledge and customary traditions surrounding coastal resource use. Unlocking this knowledge creates opportunities for the continuance and revitalization of traditional customary practises that may enable innovative Indigenous business activities and product creation, based around food, sustainable natural-fibre technologies and health. Such research also has the potential to enhance a developing Australian seaweed industry by guiding species selection, preparation, use and sustainable resource management. We recommend our findings are used to inform the direction and locations of further research conducted in conjunction with Indigenous coastal communities in Australia’s temperate regions, to explore in more detail the Indigenous Australian’s historical heritage associated with coastal seaweed resources and their uses.

Keywords

Historical ecology Indigenous knowledge Macroalgae Traditional ecological knowledge TEK Seaweed industry 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge the Gunditjmara, Boon Wurrung and Wadawurrung peoples, the traditional custodians of the lands and waters, of elders past and present, on which this work was conducted and who contributed their knowledge to this paper; and the Saltwater people of Australia’s Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples whose historical cultural practises are documented in this paper. We wish to especially thank the assistance of Uncle Bryon Powell, Gareth Powell, Aunty Fay Stewart-Muir, N’Arweet Carolyn Briggs, Tandop David Tournier (dec.), Mandy Nicholson, Dr. Phillip Clarke, Jamie Lowe, Dr. Chris Eira, Paul Paton and Joel Wright together with the Wadawurrung (Wathaurong Aboriginal Corporation) (WWAC), the Boon Wurrung Foundation Inc., the Laka Gunditj Language Program (LGLP), the Gunditj Mirring Traditional Owner Aboriginal Corporation (GMTOAC), the Eastern Maar Aboriginal Corporation (EMAC), and the Victorian Corporation for Aboriginal Languages (VCAL) for their linguistic assistance. John A. Lewis and Gerry T. Kraft are thanked for assistance with identifying species from historical records. Research associated with this paper has been subject to an approved Deakin University Human Research Ethics Committee ethics application #2014-107 dated 17 June 2014. This manuscript was improved by comments from John Huisman and another anonymous referee.

Funding information

Ruth Thurstan was supported by an Alfred Deakin Postdoctoral Research Fellowship. Zoё Brittain was supported by student funding from the School of Life and Environmental Sciences and the Centre for Integrative Ecology at Deakin University. Jennifer Dearnaley was supported by a Deakin University Postgraduate Research Scholarship and funding from the School of Architecture and Built Environment at Deakin University.

Supplementary material

10811_2017_1384_MOESM1_ESM.docx (39 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 39 kb)

References

  1. Aboriginal Art Directory (2014) Jenny Crompton wins Victoria’s richest Indigenous art award. https://news.aboriginalartdirectory.com/2014/08/jenny-crompton-wins-victorias-richest-Indigenous-art-award.php. Accessed 10 Oct 2017
  2. Akerman K (2005) Shoes of invisibility and invisible shoes: Australian hunters and gatherers and ideas on the origins of footwear. Aust Aborig Stud 2:55–64Google Scholar
  3. Angas G (1847) South Australia illustrated. Thomas McLean, LondonGoogle Scholar
  4. Arbon V (2008) Arlathirnda Ngurkarnda Ityirnda: being-knowing-doing: de-colonising Indigenous tertiary education. PostPressed, TeneriffeGoogle Scholar
  5. Australia ICOMOS (2013) The Burra Charter: the Australia ICOMOS charter for places of cultural significance. Australia ICOMOS. http://australia.icomos.org/publications/charters/. Accessed 15 December 2017
  6. Australian Government (2017) National heritage places—Budj Bim national heritage landscape. http://www.environment.gov.au/heritage/places/national/budj-bim. Accessed 15 December 2017
  7. Backhouse J (1843) A narrative of a visit to the Australian colonies. Adams and Co., LondonGoogle Scholar
  8. Ball J, Janyst P (2008) Enacting research ethics in partnerships with Indigenous communities in Canada: “do it in a good way”. J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics 3:33–51CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Barker T, Ross A (2003) Exploring cultural constraints: the case of sea mullet management in Moreton Bay, South East Queensland, Australia. In: Haggan N, Brignall C, Wood L (eds) Putting fishers’ knowledge to work, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 2003. Fishers Centre research report 11, British Columbia, Vancouver, pp 290–305Google Scholar
  10. Bell D (1998) Ngarrindjeri Wurruwarrin: a world that is, was, and will be. Spinifex Press, North MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  11. Berkes F, Colding J, Folke C (2000) Rediscovery of traditional ecological knowledge as adaptive management. Ecol Appl 10:1251–1262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Berndt R, Berndt C, Stanton J (1993) A world that was: the Yaraldi of the Murray River and the lakes, South Australia. Miegunyah Press / Melbourne University Press, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  13. Bonney N (1994) Uses of native plants in the south east of South Australia by the Indigenous peoples before 1839. South East Book Promotion Group, NaracoorteGoogle Scholar
  14. Bonney N (2004) Common native plants of the Coorong region: identification, propagation, historical use. Australia plants society (SA region) Inc., UnleyGoogle Scholar
  15. Bouga M, Combet E (2015) Emergence of seaweed and seaweed-containing foods in the UK: focus on labeling, iodine content, toxicity and nutrition. Foods 4:240–253CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Briggs C (2008) The journey cycles of the Boonwurrung: stories with Boonwurrung language. Victorian Aboriginal Corporation for Languages, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  17. Bryden W (1974) Aborigines. In: Williams WD (ed) Biogeography and ecology in Tasmania. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 417–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cawthorne W (1858) The legend of Kupirri or the red kangaroo: an Aboriginal tradition of the Port Lincoln tribe. JH Lewis Printer, AdelaideGoogle Scholar
  19. Chiovitti A, Kraft GT, Bacic A, Liao M-L (2001) Gelling polysaccharides from Australian seaweeds: research and potential. Mar Freshw Res 52:917–935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Clarke P (1995) Myth as history: the Ngurunderi mythology of the Lower Murray, Kenthurst. Rec S Aust Mus (Adel) 28:143–157Google Scholar
  21. Clarke P (2008a) Aboriginal healing practices and Australian bush medicine. J Anthropol Soc S Aust 33:3–38Google Scholar
  22. Clarke P (2008b) Aboriginal plant collectors: botanist and Australian Aboriginal people in the nineteenth century. Rosenberg Publishing, DuralGoogle Scholar
  23. Clarke P (2012) Australian plants as Aboriginal tools. Rosenberg Publishing, KenthurstGoogle Scholar
  24. Clarke P (2015a) The Aboriginal ethnobotany of the south east of South Australia region. Part 1: seasonal life and material culture. Trans Roy Soc S Aust 139:216–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Clarke P (2015b) The Aboriginal ethnobotany of the south east of South Australia region. Part 2: foods, medicines and narcotics. Trans Roy Soc S Aust 139(2):247–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Clarke P (2015c) The Aboriginal ethnobotany of the south east of South Australia region. Part 3: mythology and language. Trans Roy Soc S Aust 139:273–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Clarkson C, Jacobs Z, Marwick B, Fullagar R, Wallis L, Smith M, Roberts RG, Hayes E, Lowe K, Carah X, Florin SA, McNeil J, Cox D, Arnold LJ, Hua Q, Huntley J, Brand HEA, Manne T, Fairbairn A, Shulmeister J, Lyle L, Salinas M, Page M, Connell K, Park G, Norman K, Murphy T, Pardoe C (2017) Human occupation of northern Australia by 65,000 years ago. Nature 547:306–310CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Cornish ML, Critchley AT, Mouritsen OG (2015) A role for dietary macroalgae in the amelioration of certain risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease. Phycologia 54:649–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dawson J (1881) Australian aborigines: the languages and customs of several tribes of aborigines in the western district of Victoria. George Robinson, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  30. Dearnaley J (2014) Wathaurong medicinal plant walk. Deakin University, GeelongGoogle Scholar
  31. Dearnaley J (2015) Obituary: librarian became expert in Indigenous culture—Louis lane, Amateur archaeologist 29–8-1919 - 4-1-2015 The Age 7 April,Google Scholar
  32. Duarte CM, Wu J, Xiao X, Bruhn A, Krause-Jensen D (2017) Can seaweed farming play a role in climate change mitigation and adaptation? Front Mar Sci 4(100).  https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2017.00100
  33. Ens EJ, Pert P, Clarke PA, Budden M, Clubb L, Doran B, Douras C, Gaikwad J, Gott B, Leonard S, Locke J, Packer J, Turpin G, Wason S (2015) Indigenous biocultural knowledge in ecosystem science and management: review and insight from Australia. Biol Conserv 181:133–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ens E, Walsh F, Clarke P (2017) Aboriginal people and Australia’s vegetation: past and current interactions. In: Keith D (ed) Australian vegetation, 3rd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 89–112Google Scholar
  35. FAO (2016) FAO yearbook. Fisheries and Aquaculture statistics 2014. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. http://www.fao.org/fishery/static/Yearbook/YB2014_CD_Master/navigation/index_intro_e.htm
  36. FAT, WMAC (2004) Kooyong Sea country plan. Framlingham Aboriginal Trust (FAT) and Winda Mara Aboriginal Corporation (WMAC), PurnimGoogle Scholar
  37. Fleming A, Petheram L, Stacey N (2015) Australian Indigenous women’s seafood harvesting practices and prospects for integrating aquaculture. J Enterp Communities: People Places Global Econ 9:156–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fraser CI, Winter DJ, Spencer HG, Waters JM (2010) Multigene phylogeny of the southern bull-kelp genus Durvillaea (Phaeophyceae: Fucales). Mol Phylogen Evol 57:1301–1311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gaughwin D, Sullivan H (1984) Aboriginal boundaries and movements in Western Port, Victoria. Aborig Hist 8:80–98Google Scholar
  40. Godfray HCJ, Beddington JR, Crute IR, Haddad L, Lawrence D, Muir JF, Pretty J, Robinson S, Thomas SM, Toulmin C (2010) Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people. Science 327:812–818CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Gott B (1985) Plants mentioned in Dawson’s “Australian Aborigines”. Artefact 10:3–14Google Scholar
  42. Gott B, Conran J (1991) Victorian Koorie plants. Aboriginal Keeping Place, HamiltonGoogle Scholar
  43. Guiry MD, Guiry GM (2017) AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication. National University of Ireland. http://www.algaebase.org. Accessed 1 September 2017
  44. Heyes S (1999) The Kaurna calendar: seasons of the Adelaide Plains. University of Adelaide, AdelaideGoogle Scholar
  45. Hiatt B (1967) The food quest and the economy of the Tasmanian Aborigines. Oceania 38:99–133Google Scholar
  46. Hope G, Coutts P (1971) Past and present food resources at Wilson’s promontory. Mankind 8:104–114Google Scholar
  47. Horstman M, Wightman G (2001) Karparti ecology: recognition of Aboriginal ecological knowledge and its application to management in north-western Australia. Ecol Manag Restor 2:99–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hudson M (2009) Think globally, act locally: collective consent and the ethics of knowledge production. Int Soc Sci J 60:125–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hunter A (2007) The origin and debate surrounding the development of Aboriginal evidence acts in Western Australia in the early 1840s. Univ Notre Dame Australia Law Rev 9:115–146Google Scholar
  50. Hutchings S, Morrison A (2017) Indigenous knowledges: introduction. In: Hutchings S, Morrison A (eds) Indigenous knowledges: proceedings of the water sustainability and wild fire mitigation symposia 2012 and 2013. University of South Australia, Adelaide, pp 1–21Google Scholar
  51. ICSU (2002) Science and traditional knowledge: report from the ICSU study group on science and traditional knowledge. International Council for Science (ICSU) / Conseil international pour la science, ParisGoogle Scholar
  52. Irvine F (1957) Wild and emergency foods of Australian and Tasmanian aborigines. Oceania 28:113–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Jones D, Clarke P (2018) Aboriginal culture and food-landscape relationships in Australia: Indigenous knowledge for country and landscape. In: Zeunert J, Waterman T (eds) Routledge handbook to landscape and food. Routledge, London, pp 41–60Google Scholar
  54. Jones D, Low Choy D, Tucker R, Heyes S, Revell G, Bird S (2017) Indigenous knowledge in the built environment: a guide for tertiary educators. Australian Government Department of Education and Training, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  55. Kim JK, Yarish C, Hwang EK, Park M, Kim Y (2017) Seaweed aquaculture: cultivation technologies, challenges and its ecosystem services. Algae 32:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kirkman H, Kendrick GA (1997) Ecological significance and commercial harvesting of drifting and beach-cast macro-algae and seagrasses in Australia: a review. J Appl Phycol 9:311–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Konishi S (2008) “Inhabited by a race of formidable giants”: French explorers, aborigines, and the endurance of the fantastic in the Great South Land, 1803. Aust Humanit Rev 44:7–22Google Scholar
  58. Layton R (1992) Australian rock art: a new synthesis. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  59. Lee B (2010) Cultivated seaweed and seaweed industry development in Australia, Publication No. 10/164, Project No PRJ-004681. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  60. Lewis H (1989) Ecological and technological knowledge of fire—Aborigines versus park rangers in northern Australia. Am Anthropol 91:940–961Google Scholar
  61. Lie YA, Stuetz RM, Madgwick JC (1990) Australian brown seaweeds as a source of polysaccharide and inorganic elements. Australian. J Biotech 4:279–281Google Scholar
  62. Lourandos H (1977) Aboriginal spatial organisation and population: south-western Victoria reconsidered. Archaeol Phys Anthropol Oceania 12:202–225Google Scholar
  63. Lourandos H (1983) Intensification: a late Pleistocene-Holocene archaeological sequence from southwestern Victoria. Archaeol Ocean 18:81–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Loureiro R, Gachon CMM, Rebours C (2015) Seaweed cultivation: potential and challenges of crop domestication at an unprecedented pace. New Phytol 206:489–492CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Madgwick JC, Ralph BJ (1972) Free amino-acids in Australian marine algae. Bot Mar 15:205–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Maiden J (1889) The useful plants of Australia (including Tasmania). Turner and Henderson, SydneyCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mailhot J (1994 ) Traditional ecological knowledge: the diversity of knowledge systems and their study (translated Harvey, A). Great whale environmental assessment - background paper no 4. Great Whale Public Review Support Office, MontréalGoogle Scholar
  68. Martin K (2008) Please knock before you enter: Aboriginal regulation of outsiders and the implications for research and researchers. PostPressed, TeneriffeGoogle Scholar
  69. Matson-Green V, Maiden S (2008) Bernice Condie keeps her ancestors’ traditions alive. ABC http://www.abc.net.au/local/stories/2008/07/09/2298488.htm. Accessed 10 October 2017
  70. McFarlane I (2002) Aboriginal society in north west Tasmania: dispossession and genocide. University of Tasmania, TasmaniaGoogle Scholar
  71. McNiven I, Feldman R (2003) Ritually orchestrated seascapes: hunting magic and dugong bone mounds in Torres Strait, NE Australia. Camb Archaeol J 13:169–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Meyer H (1843) Vocabulary of the language spoken by the aborigines of South Australia. Allen, AdelaideGoogle Scholar
  73. Meyer H (1846) Manners and customs of the aborigines of the Encounter Bay tribe. South Australian Government, AdelaideGoogle Scholar
  74. Mohamed S, Hashim SN, Rahman HA (2012) Seaweeds: a sustainable functional food for complementary and alternative therapy. Trends Food Sci Technol 23:83–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mortimer G (1791) Observations and remarks made during a voyage to the Islands of Teneriffe, Amsterdam, Maria’s Islands near Van Diemen's Land; Otaheite, Sandwich Islands; Owhyhee, the Fox Islands on the north west coast of America, Tinian, and from thence to Canton, in the Brig Mercury, commanded by John Henry Cox Esq. Cadell, LondonGoogle Scholar
  76. Mouritsen OG (2017) Those tasty weeds. J Appl Phycol 29:2159–2164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. National Museum of Australia (2017) Collection explorer. National Museum of Australia. http://collectionsearch.nma.gov.au/ce/?f[0]=obj_party_name%3AVicki%20West&solrsort=random%20asc. Accessed 9 October 2017
  78. National Ocean Office (2002) Sea country—an Indigenous perspective: south-east regional marine plan assessment reports. National Oceans Office, HobartGoogle Scholar
  79. Nelson N (2013) Protecting the sanctity of native foods. In: Worldwatch Institute (ed) State of the World 2013. Island Press, Washington, DC., pp 201–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ngarrindjeri Tendi, Ngarrindjeri Heritage Committee, Ngarrindjeri Native Title Management Committee (2006) Ngarrindjeri Nation Yarluwar-Ruwe Plan: Caring for Ngarrindjeri Sea Country and Culture - Kungun Ngarrindjeri Yunnan (Listen to Ngarrindjeri People Talking). Ngarrindjeri Tendi, Ngarrindjeri Heritage Committee & Ngarrindjeri Native Title Management Committee, Meningie, SAGoogle Scholar
  81. Niewójt L (2009) Gadubanud society in the Otway ranges, Victoria: an environmental history. Aborig Hist 33:175–199Google Scholar
  82. O’Brien L (2017) Aboriginal ways of thinking and sustainability. In: Hutchings S, Morrison A (eds) Indigenous knowledges: proceedings of the water sustainability and wild fire mitigation symposia 2012 and 2013. University of South Australia, Adelaide, pp 22–33Google Scholar
  83. Oates A (1977) Plant food utilization by Victorian aborigines. LaTrobe University, BundooraGoogle Scholar
  84. Oates A, Seeman A (1979) Victorian aborigines: plant foods. National Museum of Victoria, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  85. O'Connell-Milne SA, Hepburn CD (2015) A harvest method informed by traditional knowledge maximises yield and regeneration post harvest for karengo (Bangiaceae). J Appl Phycol 27:447–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Ogle N (1839) The Colony of Western Australia: a manual for emigrants to that settlement or its dependencies. James Fraser, LondonGoogle Scholar
  87. Panangharry (1903) Early recollections of Glencoe, Lake Leake, and the South-East No.5. Border Watch, 1 AugustGoogle Scholar
  88. Pascoe B (2007) Convincing ground: learning to fall in love with your country. Aboriginal Studies Press, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  89. Phillips JA (2001) Marine macroalgal biodiversity hotspots: why is there high species richness and endemism in southern Australian marine benthic flora? Biodivers Conserv 10:1555–1577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Plomley B, Cornell C, Banks M (1990) Francois Péron's natural history of Maria Island, Tasmania. Rec Queen Vic Mus 99:1–50Google Scholar
  91. Porse H, Rudolph B (2017) The seaweed hydrocolloid industry: 2016 updates, requirements, and outlook. J Appl Phycol 29:2187–2200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Redmond S, Green L, Yarish C, Kim J, Neefus C (2014) New England seaweed culture handbook-nursery systems. Connecticut Sea Grant CTSG-14-01,Google Scholar
  93. Reichelt JL, Borowitzka MA (1984) Antimicrobial activity from marine algae: results of a large-scale screening programme. Hydrobiologia 116/117:158–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Rhodes D, Bell J (2004) Shire of Cardinia urban growth corridor Aboriginal heritage study: report to the Shire of Cardinia. Heritage Insight, RichmondGoogle Scholar
  95. Rose M (2017) The black academy: a renaissance seen through a paradigmatic prism. In: Ling I, Ling P (eds) Methods and paradigms in education research. IGI Global, Philadelphia, pp 326–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Ross P (2009) Ngarrindjeri fish traps of the Lower Murray Lakes and Northern Coorong Estuary, South Australia. M Maritime Archaeol Thesis, Flinders University, South AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  97. Ross A, Pickering Sherman K, Snodgrass J, Delcore H, Sherman R (2011) Indigenous peoples and the collaborative stewardship of nature: knowledge binds and institutional conflicts. Left Coast Press, Routledge., Walnut CreekGoogle Scholar
  98. Schmidhuber J, Tubiello FN (2007) Global food security under climate change. Proc Nat Acad Sci 104:19703–19708CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. Smith L (2012) Decolonising methodologies: research and Indigenous peoples, 2nd edn. Zed Books, LondonGoogle Scholar
  100. Sondak CFA, Ang PO, Beardall J, Bellgrove A, Boo SM, Gerung GS, Hepburn CD, Hong DD, Hu Z, Kawai H, Largo D, Lee JA, Lim P-E, Mayakun J, Nelson WA, Oak JH, Phang S-M, Sahoo D, Peerapornpis Y, Yang Y, Chung IK (2017a) Carbon dioxide mitigation potential of seaweed aquaculture beds (SABs). J Appl Phycol 29:2363–2373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sondak CFA, Ang PO, Beardall J, Bellgrove A, Boo SM, Gerung GS, Hepburn CD, Hong DD, Hu Z, Kawai H, Largo D, Lee JA, Lim P-E, Mayakun J, Nelson WA, Oak JH, Phang S-M, Sahoo D, Peerapornpis Y, Yang Y, Chung IK (2017b) Erratum to: carbon dioxide mitigation potential of seaweed aquaculture beds (SABs). J Appl Phycol 29:2375–2376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sullivan H (1981) An archaeological survey of the Mornington Peninsula, Victoria. Ministry for Conservation, VictoriaGoogle Scholar
  103. Sutherland JE, Lindstrom SC, Nelson WA, Brodie J, Lynch MDJ, Hwang MS, Choi H-G, Miyata M, Kikuchi N, Oliveira MC, Farr T, Neefus C, Mols-Mortensen A, Milstein D, Müller KM (2011) A new look at an ancient order: generic revision of the Bangiales (Rhodophyta). J Phycol 47:1131–1151CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Terra Culture (2012) Aboriginal cultural heritage conservation manual: GORCC crown land reserves between Torquay and Lorne. Terra Culture, NorthcoteGoogle Scholar
  105. Turner NJ (2003) The ethnobotany of edible seaweed (Porphyra abbottae and related species; Rhodophyta : Bangiales) and its use by First Nations on the Pacific coast of Canada. Can J Bot 81:283–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Vigilante T, Toohey J, Gorring A, Blundell V, Saunders T, Mangolamara S, George K, Oobagooma J, Waina M, Morgan K, Doohan K (2013) Island country: aboriginal connections, values and knowledge of the Western Australian Kimberley islands in the context of an island biological survey. Rec West Aust Mus Suppl 81:145–182Google Scholar
  107. Wilson S (2008) Research is ceremony: Indigenous research methods. Fernwood Publishing, Black PointGoogle Scholar
  108. Winberg PC, Skropeta D, Ullrich A (2011) Seaweed cultivation pilot trials—towards culture systems and marketable products. RIRDC Publication No. 10/184. PRJ - 000162Google Scholar
  109. Womersley HBS (1987) The marine benthic flora of southern Australia, part II. South Australian Government Printing Division, AdelaideGoogle Scholar
  110. Wynberg R, Schroeder D, Chennells R (2009) Indigenous peoples, consent and benefit sharing: lessons from the San-Hoodia case. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Yunkaporta T (2010) Our ways of learning in Aboriginal languages. In: Hobson J, Lowe K, Poetsch S, Walsh M (eds) Re-awakening languages: theory and practice in the revitalisation of Australian’s Indigenous languages. Sydney University Press, Sydney, pp 37–49Google Scholar
  112. Yunupingu D, Muller S (2009) Cross-cultural challenges for Indigenous sea country management in Australia. Australas J Environ Manag 16:158–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Zhang J, Ji Q, Shen X, Xia Y, Tan L, Kong Q (2011) Pyrolysis products and thermal degradation mechanism of intrinsically flame-retardant calcium alginate fibre. Polym Degrad Stab 96:936–942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Zola N, Gott B (1992) Koorie plants Koore people: traditional Aboriginal food, fibre and healing plants of Victoria. The Koorie Heritage Trust, MelbourneGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Centre for Integrative EcologyDeakin UniversityWarrnamboolAustralia
  2. 2.Centre for Ecology and Conservation, College of Life and Environmental SciencesUniversity of ExeterPenrynUK
  3. 3.School of Life and Environmental SciencesDeakin UniversityWaurn PondsAustralia
  4. 4.School of Architecture and Built EnvironmentDeakin UniversityGeelongAustralia
  5. 5.Institute for Koorie EducationDeakin UniversityWaurn PondsAustralia

Personalised recommendations