The use of adult Artemia is uncommon in aquaculture and limited to feeding adults of species not accepting inert diets. The aim of the present study was the development of a standardized technique for adult Artemia production in small volumes (25–100 L), and the assessment of ongrowing and enrichment diets for enhancement of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) content. We firstly assessed the effect of initial nauplii density (1, 2, and 3 nauplii mL−1) and food dose (x1, x2, and x3 quantities of mixed Tisochrysis lutea, Spirulina, and Prolon) for production of Artemia. Intermediate nauplii densities and food doses yielded the best overall results (44–46% survival; 5.6–5.9-mm length; 365–456 μg Artemia −1). Secondly, four diets (mixtures of Tisochrysis lutea, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Spirulina sp., Prolon, and Red Pepper) were tested for ongrowing. Ten short-time enrichments (STEs; 30 h) and a long-time enrichment (LTE; 9 days) were also assayed for n-3 HUFA (Highly unsaturated fatty acids) enhancement. The improvement in n-3 HUFA was rather limited in STE. However, LTE on a mixture of P. tricornutum, Prolon, and Red Pepper (regardless of further STE) in ongrowing Artemia yielded the highest contents in total fatty acids and in 20:4n-6 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, and 22:6n-3. The quality of LTE Artemia was based on an equilibrated dietary source of protein (Spirulina), 20:5n-3 (P. tricornutum), and 22:6n-3 (Red Pepper). STE Artemia had a quality similar or even higher than that of captured zooplankton, and its use in our laboratory for the feeding of seahorses significantly enhanced breeding and newborn quality.
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This study has received funding by the Spanish Ministry Of Science And Technology (Proyecto Hippocampus; CGL2005-05927-C03-01) and the Regional Government of Galicia (Xunta de Galicia; PGIDIT06PXIC402106PN). P. Quintas was supported by a postdoctoral JAE-Doc/JAE-PhD contract from the Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), co-financed by the European Social Fund, and C. Silva was granted an Erasmus scholarship (Erasmus 29154-IC-1-2007-1-PT-ERASMUS-EUC-1). We are grateful to Bridie Kennerley, Alexandra Mundy (language review), Lourdes Nieto (preparation of microalgae), and María Jesús González and Isabel Medina (fatty acid analyses of microalgae).
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Planas, M., Silva, C., Quintas, P. et al. Ongrowing and enhancement of n-3 HUFA profile in adult Artemia: short- vs long-time enrichment. J Appl Phycol 29, 1409–1420 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-016-1016-z
- Fatty acids