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Journal of Applied Phycology

, Volume 28, Issue 5, pp 2641–2650 | Cite as

Effects of the timing of a culture temperature reduction on the comprehensive metabolite profiles of Chlorella vulgaris

  • Hye Min Ahn
  • So-Hyun Kim
  • Sun-Hee Hyun
  • Sa Rang Lim
  • Hye-Youn Kim
  • Junsang Oh
  • Kyung-Min Lee
  • Seong-Joo Hong
  • Byung-Kwan Cho
  • Hookeun Lee
  • Choul-Gyun Lee
  • Hyung-Kyoon Choi
Article

Abstract

This study investigated the effects of different temperature conditions on the comprehensive metabolite profiles of Chlorella vulgaris using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry coupled with multivariate statistical analysis. C. vulgaris cells cultivated at 20 °C were transferred to 10 °C incubators at different time points of cultivation [days 0 (TR0D), 7 (TR7D), and 14 (TR14D)], then they were cultivated at 10 °C until harvesting at day 21 to compare the growth and comprehensive metabolite profiles with those cultivated under a constant cultivation temperature of 20 °C (T20). There was no significant difference in algal cell growth between cultivation under the T20 and temperature reduction (TR) conditions. Algal fatty-acid profiles under TR were different from those of the T20 condition. Specifically, the contents of octadecanoic acid (C18:0), octadecenoic acid (C18:1), hexadecadienoic acid (C16:2), and octadecadienoic acid (C18:2) increased the most under TR0D. The relative levels of metabolites such as β-alanine, glutamine, glycine, isoleucine, proline, valine, and myo-inositol, which act as osmolytes, and bioactive compounds such as neophytadiene and ascorbic acid were increased under TR conditions on day 21. Among the metabolites, the contents of neophytadiene and ascorbic acid were further investigated, and the content of ascorbic acid was highest on day 14 under the TR7D condition, while the content of neophytadiene was highest on day 21 under the TR0D and TR14D condition. Therefore, we suggest that a TR from 20 to 10 °C could enhance the production in C. vulgaris cultures of bioactive fatty acids such as C18:1, C16:2, and C18:2 (TR0D), organic osmolytes such as β-alanine, glutamine, glycine, isoleucine, proline, valine, and myo-inositol (TR conditions), ascorbic acid (TR7D), and neophytadiene (TR0D and TR14D).

Keywords

Comprehensive metabolite profile Chlorella vulgaris Chlorophyta GC–MS Temperature reduction 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the Basic Core Technology Development Program for the Oceans and the Polar Regions of the National Research Foundation (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT, and Future Planning (NRF-2011-0021055) and by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (MSIP) (NRF-2015R1A5A1008958).

Supplementary material

10811_2016_817_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (236 kb)
Fig. S1 Schematic diagram of the metabolic pathway and relative levels of the main components of C. vulgaris. This diagram was modified from pathways presented in the KEGG database (http://www.genome.jp/kegg/). Data are mean and SD values for six measurements (n = 6, biological triplicate and experiment duplicate). ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey’s tests (p < 0.05) were conducted, and different superscript letters indicate significant differences. The error bar indicate SD values. (PDF 235 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hye Min Ahn
    • 1
  • So-Hyun Kim
    • 1
  • Sun-Hee Hyun
    • 1
  • Sa Rang Lim
    • 1
  • Hye-Youn Kim
    • 1
  • Junsang Oh
    • 1
  • Kyung-Min Lee
    • 1
  • Seong-Joo Hong
    • 2
  • Byung-Kwan Cho
    • 3
  • Hookeun Lee
    • 4
  • Choul-Gyun Lee
    • 2
  • Hyung-Kyoon Choi
    • 1
  1. 1.College of PharmacyChung-Ang UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Department of Biological EngineeringInha UniversityIncheonRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Department of Biological SciencesKAISTDaejeonRepublic of Korea
  4. 4.College of PharmacyGachon UniversityIncheonRepublic of Korea

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