Skip to main content

Developmental pattern of crust into upright thalli of Grateloupia asiatica (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta)


Grateloupia asiatica is an edible seaweed and source of carrageenan in Korea. Considering the economic importance of this edible seaweed, mass culturing methods from spores have been conducted. Moreover, it helps prevent natural population depletion. Spores germinate to form crusts, filaments and spherical structures that subsequently differentiate and develop into thalli. The objective of our research was to study the developmental pattern of crust into upright thalli. Vegetative cells of crust divided circularly to expand and coalescence with other crusts, while those cells that divide vertically increase the thickness of the crust. The specific growth rate of the crusts was optimal at 20 °C (8.6 % day−1) and 42 μmol photons m−2 s−1 (10.8 % day−1). At optimum condition, they grew in regularity that forming pattern of zonation and circular mounds onto the crusts subsequently produce upright thalli. Thalli would be generated if the crusts, generally composed of six cells in thickness, will start to produce cortical and medulla cells to support and generate upright thalli. In the tank culture, the upright thalli grew rapidly during July to October and reached a maximum length of around ±5.2 cm. The thalli matured and contained many carposporangia in the branches after 150 culture days.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10


  • Baweja P, Sahoo D (2009) Regeneration studies in Grateloupia filicina (J.V. Lamouroux) C. Agardh—an important carrageenophyte and edible seaweed. Algae 24:163–168

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Iima M, Kinoshita T, Kawaguchi S, Migita S (1995) Cultivation of Grateloupia acuminata (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta) by regeneration from cut fragment of basal crust and upright thalli. J Appl Phycol 7:583–588

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kain JM, Destombe C (1995) A review of the life history, reproduction and phenology of Gracilaria. J Appl Phycol 7:269–281

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kawaguchi S (1991) Taxonomic notes on the Halymeniaceae (Rhodophyta) from Japan. I. Halymenia acuminata (Holmes) J. Agardh. Japan J Phycol 39:329–336

    Google Scholar 

  • Kawaguchi S, Wang HW, Horiguchi T, Sartoni G, Masuda M (2001) A comparative study of the red alga Grateloupia filicina (Halymeniaceae) from the northwestern Pacific and Mediterranean with the description of Grateloupia asiatica, sp. nov. J Phycol 37:433–442

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kim HG, Park JG (2006) Tissue culture of Grateloupia acuminata (Rhodophyta) from eastern coast of Korea. J Korean Aquac Soc 19:216–221

    Google Scholar 

  • Lafontaine N, Mussio I, Rusig AM (2011) Production and regeneration of protoplast from Grateloupia turuturu Yamada (Rhodophyta). J Appl Phycol 23:17–24

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lee YP, Kang S (2001) A catalogue of the seaweed in Korea. Jeju National University Press, Jeju, 662 p

  • Lee JI, Kim HG, Geraldino PJL, Hwang IK, Boo SM (2009) Molecular classification of the genus Grateloupia (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta) in Korea. Algae 24:231–238

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lee JI, Hwang IK, Park JK, Kim HG (2011) Seasonal growth of Grateloupia asiatica and G. divaricata (Rhodophyta). Korean J Nat Conserv 5:7–16

    Google Scholar 

  • LI X, Zhao P, Wang G, LI D, Wang J, Duan D (2010) Effect of temperature and irradiance on early development of Chondrus ocellatus Holm (Gigartinaceae, Rhodophyta). Chinese J Oceanol Limnol 28:508–513

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Migita S (1988) Cultivation of Grateloupia filicina (Rhodophyta, Cryptonemiales) by regeneration of crust. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 54:1923–1927 (in Japanese)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Provasoli L (1968) Media and prospect for the cultivation of marine algae. In: Watanabe A, Hattori A (eds) Cultures and collections of algae. Japanese Society Plant Physiology, Hakone, Japan, pp 63–75

    Google Scholar 

  • Santelices B, Correa JA, Isabel M (1996) Sporeling coalescence and intraclonal variation in Gracilaria chilencis (Gracilariales). J Phycol 32:313–322

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Santelices B, Correa JA, Hormazabal M, Flores V (2003) Contact responses between spores and sporelings of different species, karyological phases and cystocarps of coalescing Rhodophyta. Mar Biol 143:381–392

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shao KS, Wang JX, Zhou BC (2004) Production and application of filaments of Grateloupia turuturu (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta). J Appl Phycol 16:431–437

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Verlaque M, Brannock PM, Komatsu T, Villalard-Bohnsack M, Marston M (2005) The genus Grateloupia C. Agardh (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta) in the Thau lagoon (France, Mediterranean): a case study of marine plurispecific introduction. Phycologia 44:477–496

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wei X, Shuai L, Lu B, Wang S, Chen J, Wang G (2013) Effect of temperature and irradiance on filament development of Grateloupia turuturu (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta). J Appl Phycol 25:1881–1886

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wong SL, Chang J (2000) Salinity and light effect on growth, photosynthesis, and respiration of Grateloupia filicina (Rhodophyta). Aquaculture 182:387–395

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhao F, Zhao Z, Wang A, Liu J, Duan D (2010) Carpospore early development and callus-like tissue induction of Chrysymenia wrightii (Rhodomeniaceae, Rhodophyta) under laboratory conditions. J Appl Phycol 22:195–202

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references


We would like to thank Dr. Byung Hee Jeon, Ganesan Kandasamy and Joon Kim at the Laboratory of Seaweed Biomass, Gangneung-Wonju National University. This research work was supported by the Fishery Commercialization Technology Development Program (2012–2013) of the Development for Mass Production of Grateloupia (Rhodophyta), Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries of the South Korean Government.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hyung Geun Kim.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Adharini, R.I., Kim, H.G. Developmental pattern of crust into upright thalli of Grateloupia asiatica (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta). J Appl Phycol 26, 1911–1918 (2014).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: