Kappaphycus malesianus sp. nov.: a new species of Kappaphycus (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) from Southeast Asia
- 379 Downloads
A new species, Kappaphycus malesianus, is established as a new member of the genus Kappaphycus. Locally known as the “Aring-aring” variety by farmers in Malaysia and the Philippines, this variety has been commercially cultivated, often together with Kappaphycus alvarezii due to the similarities in morphology. Despite also producing kappa-carrageenan, the lower biomass of the K. malesianus when mixed with K. alvarezii ultimately affects the carrageenan yield. Morphological observations, on both wild and cultivated plants, coupled with molecular data have shown K. malesianus to be genetically distinct from its Kappaphycus congeners. The present study describes the morphology and anatomy of this new species as supported by DNA data, with additional morphological features for distinguishing between commercial Kappaphycus cultivars.
KeywordsKappaphycus Carrageenophyte Phylogenetics
The authors would like to thank Mr. Hakim and Mr. Hafiz from Madesjaya Sdn. Bhd. as well as Associate Prof. Dr. Suhaimi Md. Yasir and Japson Wong for their relentless support in sampling. We also thank Dr. Stefano Draisma for finding and collecting a K. cottonii sample, one of the first, from Sabah, Malaysia. We are grateful to Ng Poh Kheng, Poong Sze Wan and Jelveh Sohrabipoor for giving valuable advices on morphology and microscopy. We thank University of Malaya and the Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences for providing research facilities. We also appreciate the loaning of herbaria from the Bishop Museum and the Natural History Museum London for morphological and molecular studies. This project is funded in part by the MoHE–HIR grant (H-50001-00-A000025), Department of Fisheries Malaysia (Grant Number: 53-02-03-1062) and University of Malaya, PPP (PV014/2011A). The sampling of Indonesian specimens was supported by the International Research Collaboration and International Publication from the Directorate General of Higher Education, Indonesian Ministry of Education and Culture (190/SP2H/PL/Dit.Litabmas/IV/202).
- Agardh JG (1876) CLI: Eucheuma. In: Species, genera et ordines algarum, Vol 3. O. T. Weigel, Leipzig, pp 598–603Google Scholar
- Agardh JG (1892) Analecta algologica. Observationes de speciebus minus cognitis earumque dispositione. Lunds Univ Årrskr 28(6):1–182, pls. 1–3Google Scholar
- Aguilan JT, Broom JE, Hemmingson JA, Dayrit FM, Montaño MNE, Dancel MCA, Niñonuevo MR, Furneaux RH (2005) Structural analysis of carrageenan from farmed varieties of Philippine seaweed. Bot Mar 46:179–192Google Scholar
- Ask EI, Batibasaga A, Zertuche-González JA, Md S (2003) Three decades of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta) introduction to non-endemic locations. Proc Int Seaweed Symp 17:49–58Google Scholar
- Doty MS (1985) Eucheuma alvarezii, sp. Nov. (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) from Malaysia. In: Abbott IA, Norris JN (eds) Taxonomy of economic seaweeds: with reference to some Pacific and Caribbean spcies. California Sea Grant College Program, La Jolla, pp 37–45Google Scholar
- Doty MS (1987) The production and use of Eucheuma. In: Doty MS, Caddy JF, Santelices B (eds) Case studies of seven commercial seaweed resources. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap, Rome, pp 123–161Google Scholar
- Doty MS (1988) Prodomus Ad systematica eucheumatoideorum: A tribe of commercial seaweeds related to Eucheuma (Solieriaceae, Gigartinales). In: Abott IA (ed) Taxonomy of economic seaweeds. California Sea Grant Program, La Jolla, pp 47–61Google Scholar
- Doty MS, Alvarez VB (1975) Status, problems, advances and economics of Eucheuma farms. Mar Tech Soc J 9:30–35Google Scholar
- Doty MS, Norris JN (1985) Eucheuma species (Solieriaceae, Rhodophyta) that are major sources of carrageenan. In: Abott IA, Norris JN (eds) Taxonomy of economic seaweeds: With reference to some Pacific and Caribbean species. California Sea Grant College Program, La Jolla, pp 47–61Google Scholar
- Fredericq S, Freshwater DW, Hommersand MH (1999) Observations on the phylogenetic systematics and biogeography of the Solieriaceae (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) inferred from rbcL sequences and morphological evidence. Hydrobiologia 398/399:25–38Google Scholar
- Guiry MD, Guiry GM (2013) AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org.
- Montes HRJ, Pobre KFR, Lluisma AO (2008) Phylogenetic affiliation of the ‘Endong’/‘Spaghetti’ variety of Eucheuma as revealed by molecular data. Philippine Agric Sci 91:86–93Google Scholar
- Neish IC (2003) The ABC of Eucheuma seaplant production. Argonomy, biology and crop-handling of Betaphycus, Eucheuma and Kappaphycus the gelatinae, spinosum and cottonii of commerce. SEAPlant.net Monograph HB2F 1008 V3 GAPGoogle Scholar
- Nguyen HD, Huynh QN (1995) Species of Eucheuma and Kappaphycus in Vietnam. In: Abott IA (ed) Taxonomy of economic seaweeds, vol 5. California: California Sea Grant College System, La Jolla, pp 229–235Google Scholar
- Phang SM, Yeong HY, Lim PE, Nor ARM, Gan KT (2010) Commercial varieties of Kappaphycus and Eucheuma in Malaysia. Malaysian J Sci 29:214–223Google Scholar
- Swofford DL (2003) PAUP*. Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (* and other methods). Version 4. Sinauer Associates, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
- Trono GC (1992) Eucheuma and Kappaphycus: Taxonomy and cultivation. Bull Mar Sci Fish 12:51–65Google Scholar