Anti-inflammatory activity of halogenated secondary metabolites of Laurencia snackeyi (Weber-van Bosse) Masuda in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages
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Secondary metabolites of tropical seaweed are proven to exhibit variety of biological activities. Six species of seaweed (Caulerpa racemosa var. laete-virens, Caulerpa sertularioides f. longipes, Halymenia dilatata, Laurencia snackeyi, Padina boryana, and Sargassum swartzii) were tested for anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Crude L. snackeyi extract exhibit potent activity, and upon bioassay-guided isolation, it contained four halogenated compounds that exert profound inhibitory effects against nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These compounds were subjected to spectroscopic measurements and were identified as palisadin A (1), aplysistatin (2), 5-acetoxypalisadin B (3), and palisol (4). Further experiments showed aplysistatin (2) to significantly inhibit NO production and prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) production, and suppress inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Therefore, aplysistatin (2) is suggested to inhibit NO and PGE2 production via the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2, indicating that its activity may be attributed to the modulation of anti-inflammatory agents.
KeywordsSeaweed Laurencia snackeyi Halogenated metabolites Anti-inflammatory
CSV would like to express his appreciation to KORDI for partially funding this project. Permit to collect the seaweeds was obtained by CSV from Sabah Parks, Malaysia, and it is highly appreciated.
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