Journal of Applied Phycology

, Volume 24, Issue 5, pp 1183–1189 | Cite as

Harmful algal blooms mitigation using clay/soil/sand modified with xanthan and calcium hydroxide

  • Jing ChenEmail author
  • Gang Pan


A method was studied for marine harmful algal blooms (HABs) mitigation using clay, soil, or sand modified with xanthan and calcium hydroxide. Results showed that xanthan could trap and wrap Amphidinium carterae cells via bridging and netting interactions due to its superior salt compatibility in seawater. The maximum cell removal efficiency was 55% when xanthan was used alone. The removal effect of xanthan was enhanced by the addition of appropriate calcium hydroxide that decreased the repulsive interaction between anionic xanthan and negatively charged algal cells. Three kinds of minerals (clays, soils, and sands) were ineffective in removing algal cells before treatment. When xanthan and calcium hydroxide were used together as modifiers, the removal efficiency increased to 83–89% within 30 min using 300 mg L−1 clays, soils, or sands modified with 20 mg L−1 xanthan and 100 mg L−1 calcium hydroxide. After several hours, 95–98% cell removal was achieved and there was no significant difference in the removal efficiencies among clays, soils, and sands after being modified with xanthan and calcium hydroxide. Thus, the method would provide an alternative modification approach to suppress and mitigate HABs using local soils/sands and polymers in marine systems.


Harmful algal blooms mitigation Flocculation Xanthan Sand Soil Clay 



Funding support was obtained in the National Key Project for Basic Research of China (2008CB418105). Jing Chen acknowledges the Lake Restoration and Molecular Environmental Science Group of Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences for their help in completion of the experiments. Jing Chen also thanks Yanqing Sheng for kind help in manuscript preparation.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone ResearchChinese Academy of SciencesYantaiChina
  2. 2.Research Center for Eco-Environmental SciencesChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

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