Filaments from Grateloupia turuturu were obtained through germination of spores, regeneration from fragments of discoid crusts and erect thalli. The rates of filament formation through the three ways were 5.3 ± 1.2%, 100%, and 62.3 ± 5.6%, respectively. Discoid crusts were the best materials for the production of filaments. The obtained filaments were cloned in stationary and aerated culture. The differentiations of filaments were observed. When attached to the substrata, filaments differentiated into discoid crusts from which erect thalli grew, whereas for filaments in suspension culture, some cells in the filaments differentiated into spherical structures that also formed new erect thalli. Moreover, fragments of filaments (< 100 μ m) were seeded onto nori-nets. The regenerated plantlets grew into adult thalli in field cultivation.
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Shao, K., Wang, J. & Zhou, B. Production and application of filaments of Grateloupia turuturu (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta). J Appl Phycol 16, 431–437 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-004-5503-2