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Table 1 Types of explanations offered for scientific norm violation in three Dutch newspapers (NRC Handelsblad, De Volkskrant, Trouw), 1990–2018. ‘Diekstra’ and ‘Stapel’ refer to explanations offered of these persons’ specific cases; ‘other’ includes more general explanations offered of scientific norm violation

From: Systemic Explanations of Scientific Misconduct: Provoked by Spectacular Cases of Norm Violation?

Type of explanation 1990–1999 2000–2009 2010–2018
  Diekstra Other Total   Stapel Other Total
Personal explanations (1)  
1: Personality traits 4 1 5 2 4 1 5
Structural explanations (2–5)  
2: Publication pressure 0 2 2 0 6 15 21
3: Grant competition pressure 0 0 0 0 1 5 6
4: Third party funding 0 0 0 3 0 3 3
5: Research culture in the field 0 0 0 0 2 2 4
Other explanations (6)  
6: Other factors 2 2 4 1 1 1 2
Total 6 5 11 6 14 27 41