Appelbaum, P. S. (2007). Clinical practice. Assessment of patients' competence to consent to treatment. New England Journal of Medicine, 357(18), 1834–1840. http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMcp074045. Accessed 31 Jan 2018.
Braunack-Mayer, A. J. (2001). Should medical students act as surrogate patients for each other? Medical Education, 35(7), 681–686. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2923.2001.00970.x.
Carlsen, B., & Glenton, C. (2011). What amout N? A methodological study of sample-size reporting in focus group studies. BMJ Medical Research Methodology, 11, 26. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-11-26.
Chang, E. H., & Power, V. (2000). Are medical students comfortable with practising physical examinations on each other? Academic Medicine, 75(4), 384–389. https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-200004000-00020.
Chen, J. Y., Yip, A. L., Lam, C. L., & Patil, N. G. (2011). Does medical student willingness to practise peer physical examination translate into action? Medical Teacher, 33(10), e528–e540. https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159X.2011.599893.
Chinnah, T. I., De Bere, S. R., & Collett, T. (2011). Students' views on the impact of peer physical examination and palpation as a pedagogic tool for teaching and learning living human anatomy. Medical Teacher, 33(1), e27–e36. https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159X.2011.530313.
Delany, C., & Frawley, H. (2011). We need a new model for obtaining students' consent to conduct peer physical examinations. Academic Medicine, 86(5), 539. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0b013e318212eb2c.
Delany, C., & Frawley, H. (2012). A process of informed consent for student learning through peer physical examination in pelvic floor physiotherapy practice. Physiotherapy, 98(1), 33–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physio.2011.04.347.
Duvivier, R. J., van Geel, K., van Dalen, J., Scherpbier, A. J., & van der Vleuten, C. P. (2012). Learning physical examination skills outside timetabled training sessions: what happens and why? Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice, 17(3), 339–355. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-011-9312-5.
Finch, H., & Lewis, J. (2003). Focus groups. In J. Ritchie & J. Lewis (Eds.), Qualitative research practice. A guide for social science students and researchers (pp. 170–198). London: SAGE Publications.
Frank, J. R., & Danoff, D. (2007). The CanMEDS initiative: Implementing an outcomes-based framework of physician competencies. Medical Teacher, 29(7), 642–647. https://doi.org/10.1080/01421590701746983.
Gibson, L. M. (2009). Students' concerns about examining their peers. The Clinical Teacher, 6(3), 205–206. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1743-498X.2009.00306.x.
Gillon, R. (1994). Medical ethics: four principles plus attention to scope. British Medical Journal, 309(6948), 184–188. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.309.6948.184.
Gillon, R. (2003). Ethics needs principles – four can encompass the rest – and respect for autonomy should be "first among equals". Journal of Medical Ethics, 29(5), 307–312. https://doi.org/10.1136/jme.29.5.307.
Guest, G., Bunce, A., & Johnson, L. (2006). How many interviews are enough? An experiment with data saturation and variability. Field Methods, 18(1), 59–82. https://doi.org/10.1177/1525822X05279903.
Guest, G., Namey, E., & McKenna, K. (2017). How many focus groups are enough? Building and evidence base for nonprobability sample sizes. Field Methods, 29(1), 3–22. https://doi.org/10.1177/1525822X16639015.
Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA). (2008). Guidelines for good practice in the health care professions seeking patients' informed consent: the ethical considerations. Pretoria: HPCSA. http://www.hpcsa.co.za/Uploads/editor/UserFiles/downloads/conduct_ethics/rules/generic_ethical_rules/booklet_9_informed_consent.pdf. Accessed 13 Feb 2018.
Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA). (2014). Core competencies for undergraduate students in clinical associate, dentistry and medical teaching and learning programmes in South Africa. Pretoria: HPCSA. http://www.hpcsa.co.za/uploads/editor/UserFiles/downloads/medical_dental/MDB%20Core%20Competencies%20-%20ENGLISH%20-%20FINAL%202014.pdf. Accessed 31 Jan 2018.
Hendry, G. J. (2013). Barriers to undergraduate peer-physical examination of the lower limb in the health sciences and strategies to improve inclusion: a review. Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice, 18(4), 807–815. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-012-9418-4.
Irby, D. M., & Hamstra, S. J. (2016). Parting the clouds: three professionalism frameworks in medical education. Academic Medicine, 91(12), 1606–1611. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000001190.
Koehler, N., Currey, J., & McMenamin, C. (2014). What should be included in a peer physical examination policy and procedure? Medical Science Education, 24(4), 379–385. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40670-014-0068-4.
Krueger, R. A. (2002). Designing and conducting focus group interviews. https://www.alnap.org/system/files/content/resource/.../krueger-focusgroupinterviews.pdf. Accessed 31 Jan 2018.
Main, C. J., Buchbinder, R., Porcheret, M., & Foster, N. (2010). Addressing patient beliefs and expectations in the consultation. Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology, 24(2), 219–225. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.berh.2009.12.013.
O'Neill, P. A., Larcombe, C., Duffy, K., & Dorman, T. L. (1998). Medical students' willingness and reactions to learning basic skills through examining fellow students. Medical Teacher, 20(5), 433–437. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/01421599880526. Accessed 31 Jan 2018.
Outram, S., & Nair, B. R. (2008). Peer physical examination: Time to revisit? Medical Journal of Australia, 189(5), 274–276. https://www.mja.com.au/journal/2008/189/5/peer-physical-examination-time-revisit. Accessed 31 Jan 2018.
Pounds, G. (2010). Empathy as 'appraisal': a new language-based approach to the exploration of clinical empathy. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Professional Practice, 7(2), 139–162. https://journals.equinoxpub.com/index.php/JALPP/article/view/10128. Accessed 31 Jan 2018.
Power, D. V. (2011). In reply to Delany, C., & Frawley, H. We need a new model for obtaining students' consent to conduct peer physical examinations. Academic Medicine, 86(5), 539. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0b013e318213e5d9.
Power, D. V., & Center, B. A. (2005). Examining the medical student body: peer physical examinations and genital, rectal, or breast exams. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 17(4), 337–343. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15328015tlm1704_5.
Rees, C. E., Bradley, P., & McLachlan, J. C. (2004). Exploring medical students' attitudes towards peer physical examination. Medical Teacher, 26(1), 86–88. https://doi.org/10.1080/01421590310001642984.
Rees, C. E., Bradley, P., Collett, T., & McLachlan, J. C. (2005). "Over my dead body?": the influence of demographics on students' willingness to participate in peer physical examination. Medical Teacher, 27(7), 599–605. https://doi.org/10.1080/01421590500237671.
Rees, C. E., Wearn, A. M., Vnuk, A. K., & Bradley, P. A. (2009). Don't want to show fellow students my naughty bits: Medical students' anxieties about peer examination of intimate body regions at six schools across UK, Australasia and Far-East Asia. Medical Teacher, 31(10), 921–927. https://doi.org/10.3109/01421590802578244.
Reid, K. J., Kgakololo, M., Sutherland, R. M., Elliott, S. L., & Dodds, A. E. (2012). First-year medical students' willingness to participate in peer physical examination. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 24(1), 55–62. https://doi.org/10.1080/10401334.2012.641489.
Rudland, J. R. (2009). Learning in small groups. In J. A. Dent & R. M. Harden (Eds.), A practical guide for medical teachers (3rd ed., pp. 80–85). London: Elsevier.
Tang, K. C., & Davis, A. (1995). Critical factors in the determination of focus group size. Family Practice, 12(4), 474–475. https://doi.org/10.1093/fampra/12.4.474.
Uchida, T., Achike, F. I., Blood, A. D., Boyle, M., Farnan, J. M., Gowda, D., Hojsak, J., Ovitsh, R. K., Park, Y. S., & Silvestri, R. (2018). Resources used to teach the physical exam to preclerkship medical students: results of a national survey. Academic Medicine, 93(5), 736–741. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000002051.
University of Queensland, Australia. (2019). Clinical skills program and peer physical examination policy document. https://medicine-program.uq.edu.au/files/612/clinical_skills_program_and_peer_physical_examination_policy_2014.pdf. Accessed 31 Jan 2018.
Vnuk, A. K., Wearn, A., & Rees, C. E. (2017). The influence of students' gender on equity in peer physical examination: a qualitative study. Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice, 22(3), 653–665. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-016-9699-0.
Wearn, A., & Bhoopatkar, H. (2006). Evaluation of consent for peer physical examination: students reflect on their clinical skills learning experience. Medical Education, 40(10), 957–964. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2929.2006.02557.x.
Wearn, A. M., Rees, C. E., Bradley, P., & Vnuk, A. K. (2008). Understanding student concerns about peer physical examination using an activity theory framework. Medical Education, 42(12), 1218–1226. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2008.03175.x.
Wearn, A. M., Bhoopatkar, H., Mathew, T. K., & Stewart, L. (2013). Exploration of the attitudes of nursing students to peer physical examination and physical examination of patients. Nurse Education Today, 33(8), 884–888. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2012.08.012.