Incivility in the academic arena elicits a wide range of reactions: it interferes with learning, increases stress, feelings of disrespect and helplessness. Although reactions to incivility were mainly tested in workplaces, an extensive, robust framework to explain and measure responses to faculty incivility (FI) is yet to be offered. This study used Facet theory (FT) approach with a multidimensional scaling method of smallest space analysis (SSA), and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to confirm the theoretical structure of reactions to FI. A mapping sentence was constructed expressing the composite of three individual facets based on the theoretical framework: Facet A including four types of reactions (1)Exit (2) Voice (3) Loyalty and (4) Neglect (EVLN); Facet B reflecting the destructiveness – constructiveness dimension, and Facet C illustrating a dimension ranging from passive to active responses. Data were gathered by a scale measuring students’ reactions to FI. According to the findings, the CFA result presented four relatively interpretable factors (EVLN) while the SSA showed these factors as well as additional facets (B and C).
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Alt, D. (2015). Assessing the contribution of constructivist based academic learning environment to academic self-efficacy in higher education. Learning Environments Research, 18, 47–67.
Alt, D., & Itzkovich, Y. (2015a). Assessing the connection between students' justice experience and perceptions of faculty incivility in higher education. Journal of Academic Ethics, 13, 121–134.
Alt, D., & Itzkovich, Y. (2015b). Adjustment to college and perceptions of faculty incivility. Current Psychology. doi:10.1007/s12144-015-9334-x.
Altmiller, G. (2012). Student perceptions of incivility in nursing education: Implications for educators. Nursing Education Perspectives, 33(1), 15–20.
Amar, R., & Toledano, S. (2001). HUDAP manual. Jerusalem: The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Andersson, L. M., & Pearson, C. M. (1999). Tit for tat? The spiraling effect of incivility in the workplace. The Academy of Management Review, 24(3), 452–472.
Bentler, P. M. (2006). EQS 6 structural equations program manual. Encino: Multivariate Software, Inc..
Berger, B. A. (2000). Incivility. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 64(4), 445–450.
Berven, N. L., & Scofield, M. E. (1982). Nonmetric data-reduction techniques in rehabilitation research. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 25, 297–311.
Borg, I., & Shye, S. (1995). Facet theory: Form and content. Newbury Park: Sage.
Caza, B., & Cortina, L. (2007). From insult to injury: Explaining the impact of incivility. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 29(4), 335–350.
Chory-Assad, R. M., & Paulsel, M. L. (2004). Antisocial classroom communication: Instructor influence and interactional justice as predictors of student aggression. Communication Quarterly, 52(2), 98–114.
Clark, C. M. (2007). Thoughts on incivility: Students and faculty perceptions of uncivil behavior in nursing education. Nursing Education Perspectives, 28(2), 93–97.
Clark, C. M. (2008). Student voices on faculty incivility in nursing education: A conceptual model. Nursing Education Perspectives, 29(5), 284–289.
Clark, C. M., Farnsworth, J., & Landrum, R. E. (2009). Development and description of the incivility in nursing education (INE) survey. Journal of Theory Construction & Testing, 13(1), 7–15.
Clark, C. M., Olender, L., Kenski, D., & Cardoni, C. (2013). Exploring and addressing faculty-to-faculty incivility: A national perspective and literature review. The Journal of Nursing Education, 52(4), 211–218.
Cohen, A. (2003). The identification of underlying dimensionality in social sciences: Differences between factor analysis and smallest space analysis. In S. Levy & D. Elizur (Eds.), Facet theory: Towards cumulative social science (pp. 61–72). Ljubljana: University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Arts, Center for Educational Development.
Cohen, A. (2008). The underlying structure of the Beck depression inventory II: A multidimensional scaling approach. Journal of Research in Personality, 42, 779–786.
Cortina, L. M., Magley, V. J., Williams, J. H., & Langhout, R. D. (2001). Incivility in the workplace: Incidence and impact. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6, 64–80.
Davison, M. L. (1985). Multidimensional scaling versus components analysis of test intercorrelations. Psychological Bulletin, 97, 94–105.
Farrell, D. (1983). Exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect as responses to job dissatisfaction: A multidimensional scaling study. Academy of Management Journal, 26(4), 596–607.
Farrell, D., & Rusbult, C. E. (1992). Exploring the exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect typology: The influence of job satisfaction, quality of alternatives, and investment size. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 5(3), 201–218.
Feldmann, L. J. (2001). Classroom civility is another of our instructor responsibilities. College Teaching, 49(4), 137–140.
Greenbaum, C. W. (2009). The past, present and future of facet theory and related approaches to data analysis in the social science. In D. Elizur & E. Yaniv (Eds.), Theory construction and multivariate analysis: Applications of facet approach (pp. 1–10). Israel: FTA Publications.
Griffin, B. (2010). Multilevel relationships between organizational-level incivility, justice and intention to stay. Work & Stress, 24, 309–323.
Guttman, L. (1968). A general nonmetric technique for finding the smallest coordinate space for a configuration of points. Psychometrika, 33, 469–506.
Guttman, L. (1982). Facet theory, smallest space analysis, and factor analysis. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 54, 491–493.
Hagedoorn, M., van Yperen, N. W., van de Vliert, E., & Buunk, B. P. (1999). Employees’ reactions to problematic events: A circumplex structure of five categories of responses, and the role of job satisfaction. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 20(3), 309–321.
Hershcovis, M. S. (2011). “Incivility, social undermining, bullying...oh my!”: a call to reconcile constructs within workplace aggression research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32, 499–519.
Hirschman, A. O. (1970). Exit, voice and loyalty: Responses to decline in firms, organizations, and states. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Itzkovich, Y., & Alt, D. (2015). Development and validation of a measurement to assess college students’ reactions to faculty incivility. Ethics & Behavior, 26(8), -637.
Kim, T.-Y., & Shapiro, D. (2008). Revenge against supervisor mistreatment: Negative emotion, group membership, and cross-cultural difference. International Journal of Conflict Management, 19, 339–358.
Knepp, K. A. F. (2012). Understanding student and faculty incivility in higher education. Journal of Effective Teaching, 12(1), 33–46.
Kruskal, J. B. (1964). Nonmetric multidimensional scaling: A numerical method. Psychometrika, 29, 115–129.
Lasiter, S., Marchiondo, L., & Marchiondo, K. (2012). Student narratives of faculty incivility. Nursing Outlook, 60(3), 121–126.
Levy, S. (2005). Guttman, Louis. In Encyclopedia of Social Measurement (Vol. 2, pp. 175-188). Elsevier Inc.
Liljegren, M., Nordlund, A., & Ekberg, K. (2008). Psychometric evaluation and further validation of the Hagedoorn et al. modified EVLN measure: Personality and social sciences. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 49(2), 169–177.
Lim, S., & Cortina, L. M. (2005). Interpersonal mistreatment in the workplace: The interface and impact of general incivility and sexual harassment. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(3), 483–496.
Lim, V. K., & Teo, T. S. (2009). Mind your E-manners: Impact of cyber incivility on employees’ work attitude and behavior. Information Management, 46, 419–425.
Lingoes, J. C. (1973). The Guttman-lingoes nonmetric program series. Ann Arbor: Mathesis Press.
Marchiondo, K., Marchiondo, L. A., & Lasiter, S. (2010). Faculty incivility: Effects on program satisfaction of BSN students. The Journal of Nursing Education, 49(11), 608–614.
Maslovaty, N., & Levy, S. (2001). A comparative approach in developing a structural value theory. In D. Elizur (Ed.), Facet theory: Integrating theory construction with data analysis (pp. 21–32). Prague: Karlovy University of Prague.
Maslovaty, N., Marshall, A. E., & Alkin, M. C. (2001). Teachers' perceptions structured through facet theory: Smallest space analysis versus factor analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 61(1), 71–84.
Morrissette, P. (2001). Reducing incivility in the university college classroom. Electronic International Journal of Leadership Learning, 5(4), 1–12.
Naus, F., van Iterson, A., & Roe, R. (2007). Organizational cynicism: Extending the exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect model of employees’ responses to adverse conditions in the workplace. Human Relations, 60(5), 683–718.
Penney, L. M., & Spector, P. E. (2005). Job stress, incivility, and counterproductive work behavior (CWB): The moderating role of negative affectivity. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 777–796.
Porath, C. L., & Pearson, C. M. (2012). Emotional and behavioral responses to workplace incivility and the impact of hierarchical status. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2012.01020.x.
Porath, C. L., & Pearson, C. M. (2013). The price of incivility. Harvard Business Review, 91(1/2), 115–121.
Rousseau, D. M. (1995). Psychological contracts in organizations: Understanding written and unwritten agreements. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, Inc..
Rusbult, C. E., Farrell, D., Rogers, G., & Mainous, A. G. (1988). Impact of exchange variables on exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect: An integrative model of responses to declining job satisfaction. Academy of Management Journal, 31(3), 599–628.
Schilpzand, P., de Pater, I. E., & Erez, A. (2015). Workplace incivility: A review of the literature and agenda for future research. Journal of Organizational Behavior. doi:10.1002/job.1976.
Settles, I. H., & O’Connor, R. C. (2014). Incivility at academic conferences: Gender differences and the mediating role of climate. Sex Roles, 71(1), 71–82.
Shirom, A. (1991). A facet-theoretic approach toward theorizing in labor relations. Paper presented at the third international facet theory conference, Jerusalem, Israel.
Shye, S. (1997). Louis Guttman. Leading personalities in statistical sciences. New York: Wiley.
Shye, S., Elizur, D., & Hoffman, M. (1994). Introduction to facet theory: Content design and intrinsic data analysis in behavioral research. London: Sage.
Si, S., & Li, Y. (2012). Human resource management practices on exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect: Organizational commitment as a mediator. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23(8), 1705–1716.
Sliter, M., Sliter, K., & Jex, S. (2012). The employee as a punching bag: The effect of multiple sources of incivility on employee withdrawal behavior and sales performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33, 121–139.
Steenbergen, M. R. (2000). Item similarity in scale analysis. Political Analysis, 8(3), 261–283.
Tucker-Drob, E. M., & Salthouse, T. A. (2009). Confirmatory factor analysis and multidimensional scaling for construct validation of cognitive abilities. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 33(3), 277–285.
Wilson, N. L., & Holmvall, C. M. (2013). The development and validation of the incivility from customers scale. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 18, 310–326.
Withey, M. J., & Cooper, W. H. (1989). Predicting exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect. Administrative Science Quarterly, 34, 521–539.
Wright, M., & Hill, L. H. (2015). Academic incivility among health sciences faculty. Adult Learning, 26(1), 14–20.
About this article
Cite this article
Alt, D., Itzkovich, Y. Cross-Validation of the Reactions to Faculty Incivility Measurement through a Multidimensional Scaling Approach. J Acad Ethics 15, 215–228 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10805-017-9288-8
- Faculty incivility
- Facet theory, smallest space analysis, confirmatory factor analysis
- EVLN model
- Higher education