Journal of Academic Ethics

, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp 327–344 | Cite as

Embedding Academic Integrity in Public Universities

  • Loreta TauginienėEmail author


Particular concern about academic ethics in higher education and research institutions (HERIs) in Lithuania was addressed in 2009 by the national decision to establish an Office of Ombudsman for Academic Ethics and Procedures (Office). The decision was taken during the approval of the revised Law on Higher Education and Research by the Parliament of Lithuania. Following two failed attempts to appoint an ombudsman, the Office began to function in 2014. Since then, the ombudsman, alongside other state institutions, has been empowered to implement national higher education and research policy. At the outset of the Office activity it is important to consider how public HERIs institutionalise academic integrity, i.e. how they create an ethical environment within the academic community and what means are used to support it further. Collecting data from codes of ethics, regulations of academic integrity committees and interviews, data analysis shows that academic values manifest unevenly in teaching/learning and research. Most efforts concern the behaviour of students rather than the behaviour of academic staff (teachers and researchers). Moreover, ethics infrastructure gives a misleading image, as it lacks harmony and compatibility, despite the fact that there is a myriad of means to foster ethical behaviour. Universities should make greater effort to connect academic values with operations in teaching/learning and research.


Public university Ethics infrastructure Academic ethics Academic integrity Institutionalization 



For providing comments on the very first version of the manuscript, I thank participants of the session on Quality and Integrity of Governance at European Group of Public Administration (EGPA) Annual Conference held in Toulouse on 26-28 August, 2015. Also, I thank reviewers for their comments for improvement of this paper and dr. Raminta Pučėtaitė, Associate Professor at Vilnius University (Lithuania) and Adjunct Professor at University of Jyväskylä (Finland) for providing comments on the revised version of the paper.


  1. Bakker, J. I. (2006). Out of the clash of hermeneutic rules comes ethical decision making: but does it? Journal of Academic Ethics, 4, 11–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bengtsson, M. (2016). How to plan and perform a qualitative study using content analysis. NursingPlus Open, 2, 8–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bertok, J. (1999). OECD supports the creation of sound ethics infrastructure: OECD targets both the ‘Supply Side’ and the ‘Demand Side’ of corruption. Public Personnel Management, 28(4), 673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Braxton, J. M., & Bray, N. J. (2012). Introduction: the importance of codes of conduct for academia. New Directions for Higher Education, 160, 1–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bretag, T., & Green, M. (2014). The role of virtue ethics principles in academic integrity breach decision-making. Journal of Academic Ethics, 12, 165–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bruhn, J. G. (2008). Value dissonance and ethics failure in academia: a causal connection? Journal of Academic Ethics, 6, 16–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bullock, M., & Panicker, S. (2003). Ethics for all: differences across scientific society codes. Science and Engineering Ethics, 9, 159–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Caldwell, C. (2010). A ten-step model for academic integrity: a positive approach for business schools. Journal of Business Ethics, 92, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cho, Y. J., & Lee, E.-H. (2014). Reducing confusion about grounded theory and qualitative content analysis: similarities and differences. The Qualitative Report, 19(64), 1–20.Google Scholar
  10. Driscoll, D.-M., & Hoffman, W. M. (1999). Gaining the ethical edge: procedures for delivering values-driven management. Long Range Planning, 32(2), 179–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Elo, S., Kääriäinen, M., Kanste, O., Pölkki, T., Utriainen, K., & Kyngäs, H. (2014). Qualitative content analysis: a focus on trustworthiness. SAGE Open, 4, 1–10. doi: 10.1177/2158244014522633.
  12. Farrell, B. J., Cobbin, D. M., & Farrell, H. M. (2002). Codes of ethics: their evolution, development and other controversies. Journal of Management Development, 21(2), 152–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fisher, C. B. (2003). Developing a code of ethics for academics. Science and Engineering Ethics, 9, 171–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fox, M. (1994). Scientific misconduct and editorial and peer review processes. Journal of Higher Education, 65(3), 298–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Francis, R., & Armstrong, A. (2003). Ethics as a risk management strategy: the Australian experience. Journal of Business Ethics, 45(4), 375–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hoffman, W. M., Driscoll, D.-M., & Painter-Morland, M. (2001). Integrating ethics into organisational cultures. In C. Moon & C. Bonny (Eds.), Guide to business ethics: facing up to the issues (pp. 38–54). EIU: Economist Intelligence Unit.Google Scholar
  17. Hsieh, H.-F., & Shannon, S. E. (2005). Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qualitative Health Research, 15(9), 1277–1288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jordan, S. R. (2013). Conceptual clarification and the task of improving research on academic ethics. Journal of Academic Ethics, 11, 243–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kaptein, M., & Schwartz, M. S. (2008). The effectiveness of business codes: a critical examination of existing studies and the development of an integrated research model. Journal of Business Ethics, 77, 111–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kelley, P. C., & Lee Chang, P. (2007). A typology of university ethical lapses: types, levels of seriousness, and originating location. The Journal of Higher Education, 78(4), 402–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kelley, P. C., Agle, B. R., & Demott, J. (2005). Mapping our progress: identifying, categorizing and comparing universities’ ethics infrastructures. Journal of Academic Ethics, 3, 205–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kerr, C. (1994). Knowledge ethics and the new academic culture. Change, 26(1), 9–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kondracki, N. L., Wellman, N. S., Fada, R. D., & Amundson, D. R. (2002). Content analysis: review of methods and their applications in nutrition education. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 34(4), 224–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lietuvos Respublikos akademinės etikos ir procedūrų kontrolieriaus 2015 m. kovo 31 d. įsakymas Nr. V-16 „Dėl mokslo ir studijų institucijų akademinės etikos kodeksų priėmimo, įgyvendinimo ir priežiūros rekomendacijų patvirtinimo”. Accessed 18 June 2015.
  25. Lietuvos Respublikos švietimo ir mokslo ministro 2005 m. gruodžio 5 d. įsakymas Nr. ISAK-2485 „Dėl Rekomendacijų akademinės etikos kodeksams patvirtinimo“ // Žin., 2005, No. 145–5299. Accessed 18 June 2015.
  26. Loewy, E. H. (1994). Institutional morality, authority, and ethics committees: how far should respect for institutional morality go? Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 3(4), 578–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. McCabe, D., & Pavela, G. (2000). Some good news about academic integrity. Change, 32(5), 32–38.Google Scholar
  28. McCabe, D. L., Trevino, L. K., & Butterfield, K. D. (2002). Honor codes and other contextual influences on academic integrity: a replication and extension to modified honor code settings. Research in Higher Education, 43(3), 357–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Melendez, B. (1985). Honor code study. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.Google Scholar
  30. Moore, G. (2006). Managing ethics in higher education: implementing a code or embedding virtue? Business Ethics: a European review, 15(4), 407–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Nijhof, A., Wilderom, C., & Oost, M. (2012). Professional and institutional morality: building ethics programmes on the dual loyalty of academic professionals. Ethics and Education, 7(1), 91–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Novelskaitė, A., Pučėtaitė, R., Lipnevič, A., Adomaitienė, R., Mikėnė, S., & Lapinaitė, L. (2015). Mokslinės veiklos etika Lietuvoje. Teorinės, empirinės ir praktinės apibrėžtys mokslinių tyrimų,akademinės autorystės, etikos vadybos ir kituose kontekstuose. Vilnius: LSTC.Google Scholar
  33. Piascik, P., & Brazeau, G. A. (2010). Promoting a culture of academic integrity. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 74(6), 1–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Potter, R. L. (Summer 1996). From clinical ethics to organizational ethics: the second stage of the evolution of bioethics. Bioethics Forum, 12(2), 3–12.Google Scholar
  35. Renz, D. O., & Eddy, W. B. (1996). Organizations, ethics, and health care: building an ethics infrastructure for a new era. Bioethics Forum, 12(2), 29–39.Google Scholar
  36. Rezaee, Z., Elmore, R. C., & Szendi, J. Z. (2001). Ethical behavior in higher educational institutions: the role of the code of conduct. Journal of Business Ethics, 30(2), 171–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rohr, J. A. (1989). Ethics for bureaucrats. An essay on law and values. New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  38. Schurr, G. M. (1982). Toward a code of ethics for academics. Journal of Higher Education, 53(3), 318–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Schwartz, M. (2001). The nature of the relationship between corporate codes of ethics and behaviour. Journal of Business Ethics, 32, 247–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Schwartz, M. S. (2002). A code of ethics for corporate code of ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 41, 27–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sharp Paine, L. (1994). Managing for organizational integrity. Harvard Business Review, 72(2), 106–117.Google Scholar
  42. Stohs, J. H., & Brannick, T. (1999). Codes and conduct: predictors of Irish managers’ ethical reasoning. Journal of Business Ethics, 22(4), 311–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Svensson, G., Wood, G., & Callaghan, M. (2006). Codes of ethics in corporate Sweden. Corporate Governance, 6(5), 547–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sychev, A. (2012). Ethical committee as a form of institutionalisation of academic ethics. Socialinių mokslų studijos, 4(1), 47–59.Google Scholar
  45. Tauginienė, L. (2013). Socialinė atsakomybė universiteto mokslinės veiklos valdyme. Doctoral Dissertation. Vilnius: Mykolas Romeris University.Google Scholar
  46. Tenbrunsel, A. E., Smith-Crowe, K., & Umphress, E. E. (2003). Building houses on rocks: the role of the ethical infrastructure in organizations. Social Justice Research, 16(3), 285–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Turner, S. (1999). Universities and the regulation of scientific morals. In J. M. Braxton (Ed.), Perspecitves on scholarly misconduct in the sciences (pp. 116–136). Columbus: Ohio State University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Vasiljevienė, N. (2006). Organizacijų etika: institucinės etikos vadybos sistemos. VU: Vilnius.Google Scholar
  49. Vasiljevienė, N. (2014). Akademinis integralumas: nuo abstraktaus kalbėjimo apie akademinį sąžiningumą – prie jo vadybos. Socialinių mokslų studijos, 6(3), 535–556.Google Scholar
  50. Vasiljevienė, N., & Jakimenko, V. (2012). Permąstant integralumo vertybę. Societal Innovations for Global Growth, 1(1), 1026–1041.Google Scholar
  51. Vinten, G. (1990). Business ethics: busybody or corporate conscience? Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 11(3), 4–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Walton, N. A., Karabanow, A. G., & Saleh, J. (2008). Students as members of university-based academic research ethics boards: a natural evolution. Journal of Academic Ethics, 6, 117–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wood, G., & Rimmer, M. (2003). Code of ethics: what are they really and what should they be? International Journal of Value-Based Management, 16, 181–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zuzevičiūtė, V., & Kraskauskaitė, D. (2012). Švietimo organizacijų vadyba: etikos kodekso vaidmens interpretacija. Organizacijų vadyba: sisteminiai tyrimai, 63, 125–137.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mykolas Romeris UniversityVilniusLithuania

Personalised recommendations