Advertisement

Journal of Adult Development

, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp 89–108 | Cite as

Identity Statuses and Event-Focused Narratives at University Starting Point in Italy

  • Luigia Simona Sica
  • Koen Luyckx
  • Luc Goossens
  • Giancarlo Ragozini
  • Laura Aleni Sestito
Article
  • 248 Downloads

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to explore in greater depth the identity formation processes in Italian university students starting from previous studies that have provided support for a “postponed Identity”. Given the particular socio-economic difficulties of the Italian context, especially occupational uncertainty, this study assumes that the years of university for Italian students are rather like a time of standby, a period when students are allowed to remain in moratorium (institutionalized) or diffusion statuses and disengage from tasks related to personal and professional identity consolidation. For this purpose, the study focuses initially on the person-centred approach by measuring identity statuses in students attending the first 2 years of university and in students attending the fourth and fifth years of university. Subsequently, it focuses on the first 2 years of university through an event-focused approach, exploring narrative accounts of memorable daily life events perceived as important for identity construction, and to deepen our understanding of the subjective dimension of personal changes. Based on five identity dimensions, the cluster analysis indicated that six identity statuses could be extracted for both students groups: achievement, foreclosure, moratorium, diffused diffusion, carefree diffusion and undifferentiated. Each of these clusters revealed a distinct profile in terms of narrative universes of meaning. The study explored associations between narratives, reflecting a particular focus on the identity content and identity statuses. Suggestions for future research and limitations are discussed.

Keywords

Identity statuses Diary Event-focused narratives University students 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest concerning this article.

References

  1. Adams, G. R., Berzonsky, M. D., & Keating, L. (2006). Psychosocial resources in first-year university students: The role of identity processes and social relationships. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35, 81–91. doi: 10.1007/s10964-005-9019-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams, G. R., & Marshall, S. (1996). A developmental social psychology of identity: Understanding the person in context. Journal of Adolescence, 19, 1–14. doi: 10.1006/jado.1996.0041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alaszewki, A. (2006). Using diaries for social research. London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aleni Sestito, L., Parrello, S., Nasti, M., & Sica, L. S. (2009). Il posto degli altri nel racconto di sé. L’identità relazionale nel passaggio dalla scuola al mondo universitario/lavorativo. GIPO, Giornale Italiano di Psicologia dell’Orientamento, 10, 19–35.Google Scholar
  5. Aleni Sestito, L., & Sica, L. S. (2010b). La formazione dell’identita’ nella transizione dalla scuola superiore all’universita’: dimensioni processuali e stili. Rassegna di Psicologia (Psychology Rewiew), 3, 59–82.Google Scholar
  6. Aleni Sestito, L., & Sica, L. S. (2014). Identity formation of Italian emerging adults living with parents: A narrative study. Journal of Adolescence.  10.1016/j.adolescence.2014.02.013.Google Scholar
  7. Aleni Sestito, L., Sica, L. S., & Nasti, M. (2009). Sentire, Ricordare, Dare senso e volere…” Dimensioni emotive e temi di sviluppo dell’identità narrativa dei giovani in transizione dalla scuola all’università. Psicologia Scolastica (School Psychology), 8(1), 57–85.Google Scholar
  8. Aleni Sestito, L., & Sica, L. S. (2010). Uncertainty and disturbance? Emotional dimensions of the redefinition of identity in emerging adults. The 12th biennial conference of the European association for research on adolescence. Medimond–Monduzzi Editore International Proceedings Division (pp. 71–75).Google Scholar
  9. Aleni Sestito, L., Sica, L. S., & Ragozini, G. (2011). I primi anni dell’università: processi di definizione dell’identità tra confusione e consolidamento. Journal of Developmental Psychology, 99, 20–33.Google Scholar
  10. Aleni Sestito, L., Sica, L. S., Nasti, M. (2013). The generation of youth without work: Transitions to adulthood in conditions of precariousness, unemployment and underemployment. Researches of Pychology, 3, 411–444.Google Scholar
  11. Aleni Sestito, L., Sica, L. S., Ragozini, G., Porfeli, E., Weisblat, G., & Di Palma, T. (2015). Vocational and overall identity: A person-centered approach in Italian university students. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 91, 157–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Alisat, S., & Pratt, M. W. (2012). Characteristics of young adults’ personal religious narratives and their relation with the identity status model: A longitudinal, mixed methods study. Identity, 12, 29–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55, 469–480.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Arnett, J. J. (2004). Emerging adulthood: The winding road from the late teens through the twenties. Oxford: University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Arnett, J. J. (2007). Emerging adulthood: What is it, and what is it good for? Child Development Perspectives, 1(2), 68–73. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-8606.2007.00016.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Barber, B. K., Maughan, S. L., & Olsen, J. A. (2005). Patterns of parenting across adolescence. In J. G. Smetana (Ed.), New directions for child development: Changes in parental authority during adolescence. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  17. Berzonsky, M. D. (1989). Identity style: Conceptualization and measurement. Journal of Adolescent Research, 4(3), 268–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Berzonsky, M. D. (2004). Identity processing style, self-construction, and personal epistemic assumptions: A social-cognitive perspective. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 1, 303–315. doi: 10.1080/17405620444000120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Berzonsky, M. D., & Kuk, L. S. (2000). Identity status, identity processing style, and the transition to university. Journal of Adolescent Research, 15(1), 81–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Beyers, W., & Goossens, L. (2008). Dynamics of perceived parenting and identity formation in late adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 31(2), 165–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Blos, P. (1967). The second individuation process of adolescence. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 22, 162–186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Blos, P. (1979). The adolescent passage. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  23. Boeri, T., & Galasso, V. (2007). Contro I giovani. Come l’Italia sta tradendo le nuove generazioni. Milano: Mondadori.Google Scholar
  24. Bolger, N., Davis, A., & Rafaeli, E. (2003). Diary methods: Capturing life as it is lived. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 579–616. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.54.101601.145030.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bosma, H. A., & Kunnen, E. S. (2001). Determinants and mechanisms in ego identity development: A review and synthesis. Developmental Review, 21, 39–66. doi: 10.1006/drev.2000.0514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bosma, H. A. (1992). Identity in adolescence: Managing commitments. In G. R. Adams, R. Montemayor & T. P. Gullota (Eds.), Advances in adolescent development: Adolescent identity formation (pp. 91–121). Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
  27. Brewer, W. F. (1988). Memory for randomly sampled autobiographical events. In U. Neisser & E. Winograd (Eds.), Remembering reconsidered: Ecological and traditional approaches to the study of memory (pp. 21–90). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Brockmeier, J. (2004). Possible lives. In M. Bamberg & A. Molly (Eds.), Considering counter-narratives (pp. 323–333). Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing.Google Scholar
  29. Bruner, J. S. (1986). Actual minds, possible world. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Bruner, J. S. (1990). Acts of meaning. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Bruner, J. S. (1993). The autobiographical process. In R. Folfenflik (Ed.), The culture of autobiography: Construction of self-representation (pp. 38–56). Standford: Standford University press.Google Scholar
  32. Bruner, J. S. (1995). Self reconsidered: Five conjectures. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the society for philosophy and psychology. State University of New York at Stony Brook, New York.Google Scholar
  33. Chanal, V., & Moscarola, J. (1998). The language of theory and the language of action: Lexical analysis of an action research on innovation. Proceedings from the 4th international conferences on the statistical analysis of textual data (pp. 205–220). Lausanne: Swiss Federal Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
  34. Côté, J. E., & Levine, C. (1988). The relationship between ego identity status and Erikson's notions of institutionalized moratoria, value orientation stage, and ego dominance. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 17(1), 81–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Côté, J. E., & Levine, C. (2002). Identity formation, agency, and culture: A social psychological synthesis. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  36. Crocetti, E., Klimstra, T., Keijsers, L., Hale, W. W. III, & Meeus, W. (2009). Anxiety trajectory classes and identity development in adolescence: A five-wave longitudinal study. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38(6), 839–849.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Crocetti, E., Luyckx, K., Scrignaro, M., & Sica, L. S. (2011). Identity formation in Italian emerging adults: A cluster-analytic approach and associations with psychosocial functioning. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 8, 558–572. doi: 10.1080/17405629.2011.576858.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Crocetti, E., Palmonari, A. (2011). When the plural is a must: The multifaceted paths of adolescents and young people. Zancan Studies, 5, 25–40.Google Scholar
  39. Crocetti, E., Rabaglietti, E., & Sica, L. S. (2012). Personal Identity in Italy. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 138, 87–102. doi: 10.1002/cad.20023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Crocetti, E., Rubini, M., Luyckx, K., & Meeus, W. (2008). Identity formation in early and middle adolescents from various ethnic groups: From three dimensions to five statuses. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37, 983–996. doi: 10.1007/s10964-007-9222-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Crocetti, E., Schwartz, S., Fermani, A., Klimstra, T., & Meeus, W. (2012). A cross-national study of identity statuses in Dutch and Italian adolescents: Status distributions and correlates. European Psychologist, 17, 171–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Crocetti, E., Schwartz, S., Fermani, A., & Meeus, W. (2010). The Utrecht-management of identity commitments scale (U-MICS): Italian validation and cross-national comparisons. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 26(3), 169–183. doi: 10.1027/1015-5759/a000024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. De Cuyper, N., & De Witte, H. (2006). The impact of job insecurity and contract type on attitudes, well-being and behavioural reports: A psychological contract perspective. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 79, 395–409. doi: 10.1348/096317905X53660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. De Cuyper, N., & De Witte, H. (2007). Job insecurity in temporary versus permanent workers: Associations with attitudes, well-being, and behaviour. Work and Stress, 21, 65–84. doi: 10.1080/02678370701229050.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Di Palma, T., Sica, L. S., & Aleni Sestito, L. (2014). L’Identità narrativa nella transizione dalla scuola all’università: percorsi accidentati. Giornale Italiano di Psicologia dell’Orientamento, 14(3), 37–45.Google Scholar
  46. Eccles, J. S., & Roeser, R. W. (2003). Schools as developmental contexts. In G. Adams (Ed.), Handbook of adolescence (pp. 129–148). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  47. Elkind, D. (1979). The child and society, essays in applied child development. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Elkind, D. (1985). Egocentrism redux. Developmental Review, 5, 218–226. doi: 10.1016/0273-2297(85)90010-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Elliott, H. (1997). The use of diaries in sociological research on health experience. Sociological Research Online, 2(2). http://www.socresonline.org.uk/socresonline/2/2/7.html.
  50. Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity, youth, and crisis. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  51. Fivush, R., Bohanek, J. G. & Zaman, W. (2011). Personal and intergenerational narratives in relation to adolescents’ well-being. In T. Habermas (Ed.), The development of autobiographical reasoning in adolescence and beyond. New directions in child and adolescent development (pp. 45–57). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. doi: 10.1002/cd.288.Google Scholar
  52. Fivush, R., Haden, C. A., & Reese, E. (2006). Elaborating on elaborations: Maternal reminiscing style and children’s socio-emotional outcome. Child Development, 77, 1568–1588.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Fivush, R., & Nelson, K. (2004). Culture and language in the emergence of autobiographical memory. Psychological Science, 15, 573–577. doi: 10.1111/j.0956-7976.2004.00722.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ford, D. H., & Lerner, R. M. (1992). Developmental systems theory: An integrative approach. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  55. Gore, P. (2000). Cluster analysis. In H. Tinsley & S. Brown (Eds.), Handbook of applied multivariate statistics and mathematical modeling. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  56. Grazzani Gavazzi, I., & Duncan, E. (2004). Emozioni a valenza positiva e compiti di sviluppo in adolescenza. Età Evolutiva, 78, 14–26.Google Scholar
  57. Grazzani Gavazzi, I., & Ornaghi, V. (2007). La narrazione delle emozioni in adolescenza. Milano: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  58. Grotevant, H. D., & Cooper, C. R. (1985). Patterns of interaction in family relationships and the development of identity exploration in adolescence. Child Development, 56(2), 415–428.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Habermas, T., & Bluck, S. (2000). Getting a life: The emergence of the life story in adolescence. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 748–769. doi: 10.1037//0033-2909.126.5.748.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Iborra, A. (2007). A content analysis of narratives from a categorical and holistic point of view to study changes after a rite of passage. In M. Watzlawick & A. Born (Eds.), Capturing identity: Quantitative and qualitative methods (pp. 39–52). Lanham, MD: University Press of America.Google Scholar
  61. Iezzi, M., & Mastrobuoni, T. (2010). Gioventù sprecata. Bari: Editori Laterza.Google Scholar
  62. Iida, M., Shrout, P. E., Laurenceau, J. P., & Bolger, N. (2012). Using diary methods in psychological research. In H. Cooper (Eds.), APA handbook of research methods in psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  63. Ingoglia, S., & Allen, J. P. (2010). Autonomia e connessione nella relazione genitori-adolescenti. Una procedura d’osservazione delle interazioni familiari. Milano: Unicopli.Google Scholar
  64. Jensen, M., Kristiansen, I., Sandbekk, M., & Kroger, J. (1998). Ego identity status in cross-cultural context: A comparison of Norwegian and United States university students. Psychological Reports, 83, 455–460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kaplan, A., & Flum, H. (Eds.). (2009). Special issue: Motivation and identity. Educational Psychologist, 44(2), 73–77.Google Scholar
  66. Kroger, J. (1997). Gender and identity: The intersection of structure, content, and context. Sex Roles, 36, 747–770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kroger, J. (1998). Adolescence as a second separation-individuation process: Critical review of an object relations approach. In E. Skoe & A. von der Lippe (Eds.), Personality development in adolescence: A cross national life-span perspective. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  68. Kroger, J. (2004). Identity in adolescence: The balance between self and other (3). London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kroger, J. (2007). Identity development: Adolescence through adulthood (2). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  70. Kunnen, E., & Bosma, H. (2000). Development of meaning making: A dynamic systems approach. New Ideas in Psychology, 18(1), 57–82. doi: 10.1016/S0732-118X(99)00037-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lancia, F. (2004). Strumenti per l’Analisi dei Testi. Introduzione all’uso di T-LAB. Milano: Franco Angeli.Google Scholar
  72. Lannegrand, W. L., & Bosma, H. A. (2006). Identity development-in-context: The school as an important context for identity development. Identity, Journal of Theory and Research, 6(1), 85–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lerner, G. H. (1993). Collectivities in action: Establishing the relevance of conjoined participation in conversation. Text, 13(2), 213–245. doi: 10.1515/text.1.1993.13.2.213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  75. Livi Bacci, M. (2008). Avanti giovani, alla riscossa. Bologna: Il Mulino.Google Scholar
  76. Low, J. M., Akande, D., & Hill, C. (2005). A cross-cultural comparison of identity development: South Africa and the United States. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 5, 303–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Luyckx, K., Goossens, L., & Soenens, B. (2006). A developmental contextual perspective on identity construction in emerging adulthood: Change dynamics in commitment formation and commitment evaluation. Developmental Psychology, 42, 366–380. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.42.2.366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Luyckx, K., Schwartz, S. J., Berzonsky, M. D., Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., Smits, I., & Goossens, L. (2008). Capturing ruminative exploration: Extending the four-dimensional model of identity formation in late adolescence. Journal of Research in Personality, 42, 58–82. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2007.04.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Luyckx, K., Soenens, B., Goossens, L., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2007). Parenting, identity formation, and college adjustment: A mediation model with longitudinal data. Identity, 7(4), 309–330. doi: 10.1080/15283480701600785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Marcia, J. E. (1966). Development and validation of ego identity status. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3, 551–558.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Marcia, J. E. (1993). The ego identity status approach to ego identity. In J. E. Marcia, A. S. Waterman, D. R. Matteson, S. L. Archer, & J. L. Orlofsky (Eds.), Ego identity (pp. 3–21). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. McAdams, D. P., Josselson, R., & Lieblich, A. (Eds.). (2001). Turns in the road: Narrative studies of lives in transition. Washington, DC: APA.Google Scholar
  83. McAdams, D. P. (1993). The stories we live by. New York: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  84. McAdams, D. P., Anyidoho, N. A., Brown, C., Huang, Y. T., Kaplan, B., & Machado, M. A. (2004). Traits and stories: Links between dispositional and narrative features of personality. Journal of Personality, 72, 761–784. doi: 10.1111/j.0022-3506.2004.00279.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. McAdams, D. P., Reynolds, J., Lewis, M., Patten, A. H., & Bowman, P. J. (2001). When bad things turn good and good things turn bad: Sequences of redemption and contamination in life narrative and their relation to psychosocial adaptation in midlife adults and in students. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(4), 474–485. doi: 10.1177/0146167201274008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. McLean, K. C., Breen, A., & Fournier, M. A. (2010). Adolescent identity development: Narrative meaning-making and memory telling. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 20, 166–187. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.41.4.683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. McLean, K. C., & Pasupathi, M. (Eds.). (2010). Narrative development in adolescence: Creating the storied self. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  88. McLean, K. C., & Pasupathi, M. (2012). Processes of identity development: Where I am and how I got there. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 12(1), 8–28. doi: 10.1080/15283488.2011.632363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. McLean, K. C., Pasupathi, M., & Pals, J. L. (2007). Selves creating stories creating selves: A process model of narrative self development in adolescence and adulthood. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 11, 262–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. McLean, K. C., & Pratt, M. W. (2006). Life’s little (and big) lessons: Identity development and the construction of meaning in the turning point narratives of emerging adulthood. Developmental Psychology, 42, 714–722.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Meeus, W. (1996). Studies on identity development in adolescence: An overview of research and some new data. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 25, 569–598. doi: 10.1007/BF01537355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Meeus, W. (2001). A three-dimensional measure of identity: The Utrecht-management of identity commitments scale (U-MICS). Unpublished Manuscript, Research Centre Adolescent Development. The Netherlands: Utrecht University.Google Scholar
  93. Meeus, W., Iedema, J., & Maassen, G. H. (2002). Commitment and exploration as mechanisms of identity formation. Psychological Reports, 90, 771–785. doi: 10.2466/pr0.2002.90.3.771.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Meeus, W., Van de Schoot, R., Keijsers, L., & Branje, S. (2011). Identity statuses as developmental trajectories. A five-wave longitudinal study in early to middle and middle to late adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41, 1–14. doi: 10.1007/s10964-011-9730-y.Google Scholar
  95. Montgomery, M. J., & Coˆte´, J. E. (2003). College as a transition to adulthood. In G. R. Adams & M. D. Berzonsky (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of adolescence. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  96. Nelson, K. (1993). The psychological and social origins of autobiographical memory. Psychological Science, 4(1), 7–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Oatley, K., & Duncan, E. (1992). Incidents of emotion in daily life. In K. T. Strongman (Ed.), International review of studies on emotion (pp. 249–293). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  98. Oatley, K., & Duncan, E. (1994). The experience of emotions in everyday life. Cognition and Emotion, 8, 369–381. doi: 10.1080/02699939408408947.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Pasupathi, M., McLean, K. C., & Weeks, T. (2009). To tell or not to tell: Disclosure and the narrative self. Journal of Personality, 77, 1–35. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2008.00539.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Pasupathi, M., Wainryb, C., & Twali, M. (2012). Narrative construction of ethnicity-based discrimination and its relationships to ethnic identity exploration and commitment in ethnic majority and minority members. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 12, 53–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Reinert, M. (1986). Un logiciel d’analyse textuelle: ALCESTE. Cahier de l’Analyse del Donées, 3, 187–198.Google Scholar
  102. Reinert, M. (1987). Descending hierarchical classification and context-based lexical analysis : Application to the corpus of poems by A. Rimbaud. Bulletin de Méthodologie Sociologique, 13, 53–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Reinert, M. (1993). Les « mondes lexicaux » et leur « logique » à travers l’analyse statistique d’un corpus de récits de cauchemars. Langage et société, 66, 5–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Rimé, B., Finkenauer, C., Luminet, O., Zech, E., & Phillipot, P. (1998). Social sharing of emotion: New evidence and new questions. European Review of Social Psychology, 9, 145–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Sica, L. S., Aleni Sestito, L. (2016). Between distress and agency: The difficult path of identity consolidation in narratives of young adults unemployed or precarious. Psicologia della salute, 1, 111–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Samuolis, J., Layburn, K., & Schiaffino, K. M. (2001). Identity development and attachment to parents in college students. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30(3), 373–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Schachter, E. P., & Rich, Y. (2011). Identity education: A conceptual framework for educational researchers and practitioners. Educational Psychologist, 46, 222–238. doi: 10.1080/00461520.2011.614509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Schachter, E. P., & Ventura, J. J. (2008). Identity agents: Parents as active and reflective participants in their children’s identity formation. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 18, 449–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Schonhardt-Bailey, C. (2005). Measuring ideas more effectively: An analysis of Bush and Kerry’s national security speeches. Political Science & Politics, 38, 701–711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Schwartz, S. J., Adamson, L., Ferrer-Wreder, L., Dillon, F. R., & Berman, S. L. (2006). Identity status measurement across contexts: Variations in measurement structure and mean levels among White American, Hispanic American, and Swedish emerging adults. Journal of Personality Assessment, 86, 61–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Schwartz, S. J., Forthun, L. F., Ravert, R. D., Zamboanga, B. L., Rodriguez, L., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Filton, B. J., Kim, S. Y., Rodriguez, L., Weisskirch, R. S., Vernon, M., Shneyderman, Y., Williams, M. K., Agocha, V. B., & Hudson, M. (2010). The protective role of identity consolidation against health risk behaviors in college-attending emerging adults. American Journal of Health Behavior, 34, 214–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sica, L. S. (2009). Adolescents in different contexts: The exploration of identity through possible selves. Cognition, Brain, Behavior. An Interdisciplinary Journal, 13(3), 221–252.Google Scholar
  113. Sica, L. S., Aleni Sestito, L., & Ragozini, G. (2014). Identity coping in the first years of university: Identity diffusion, adjustment and identity distress. Journal of Adult Development, 21, 159–172. doi: 10.1007/s10804-014-9188-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Sica, L. S., Brockmeier, J., & Aleni Sestito, L. (2010). Narrative identity construction in normative and non normative biographical transitions. Psicologia Scolastica, 9(1), 15–37.Google Scholar
  115. Stegarud, L., Solheim, B., Karlsen, M., & Kroger, J. (1999). Ego identity status in cross-cultural context: A replication study. Psychological Reports, 85, 457–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Thorne, A., McLean, K. C., & Lawrence, A. (2004). When remembering is not enough: Reflecting on self-defining events in late adolescence. Journal of Personality, 72, 513–542.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Trapnell, P. D., & Campbell, J. D. (1999). Private self-consciousness and the five-factor model of personality: Distinguishing rumination from reflection. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76(2), 284–304. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.76.2.284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Vleioras, G., Van Geert, P., & Bosma, H. (2008). Modeling the role of emotions in viewing oneself maturely. New Ideas in Psychology, 26, 69–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Waterman, A. S. (1982). Identity development from adolescence to adulthood: An extension of theory and a review of research. Developmental Psychology, 18, 342–358. doi: 10.1037//0012-1649.18.3.341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Waterman, A. S. (1993). Developmental perspectives on identity formation: From adolescence to adulthood. In J. E. Marcia, A. S. Waterman, D. R. Matteson, S. Archer & J. L. Orlofsky (Eds.), Ego identity. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  121. Waterman, A. S. (1999). Identity, the identity statuses, and identity status development: A contemporary statement. Developmental Review, 19, 591–621. doi: 10:016/0273-2297(85)90010-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Wintre, M. G., & Morgan, A. S. (2009). Transferring post-secondary schools: Student perceptions, rationales, and experiences. Journal of Adolescent Research, 24(6), 726–749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Wintre, M. G., & Yaffe, M. (2000). First-year students’ adjustment to university life as a function of relationships with parents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 15, 9–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Yip, T., & Cross, W. E. (2004). A daily diary study of mental health and community involvement for three Chinese American social identities. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 10(4), 394–408. doi: 10.1037/1099-9809.10.4.394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Zimmermann, P., & Becker-Stoll, F. (2002). Stability of attachment representations in adolescence: The influence of ego-identity status. Journal of Adolescence, 25, 107–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luigia Simona Sica
    • 1
  • Koen Luyckx
    • 2
  • Luc Goossens
    • 2
  • Giancarlo Ragozini
    • 3
  • Laura Aleni Sestito
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of HumanitiesUniversity of Naples “Federico II”NaplesItaly
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyK.U.LeuvenBelgium
  3. 3.Department of Political SciencesUniversity of Naples “Federico II”NaplesItaly

Personalised recommendations