First-Year Female College Students’ Academic Motivation as a Function of Perceived Parenting Styles: A Contextual Perspective

Abstract

The connections between three parenting styles (authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative) and three motivational constructs (extrinsic/intrinsic and amotivation for learning) of 202 Palestinian-Arab young females were tested. This study used structural equation modeling statistical method and smallest space analysis (SSA, a variant of multidimensional scaling MDS) to compute the complex relationships indicated in previous research between the examined variables. Results showed that the participants perceived their parents as more authoritative than authoritarian or permissive. According to the path analysis results, the authoritative parenting style was negatively connected to amotivation, the authoritarian was positively related to extrinsic motivation, and a positive relation was found between permissiveness and amotivation for learning. Only the SSA has confirmed the postulated connection between the authoritative parenting style and intrinsic motivation variables. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

Notes

  1. 1.

    Also defined as Palestinian citizens of Israel.

References

  1. Abu-Rabia-Queder, S., & Weiner-Levi, N. (2008). Identity and gender in cultural transitions: Returning home from higher education as “internal immigration” among Bedouin and Druze women in Israel. Social Identities, 14, 665–682.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Ahmed, R. A. (2013). The father’s role in the Arab world. In D. W. Shwalb, B. J. Shwalb, & M. E. Lamb (Eds.), Fathers in cultural context (pp. 122–147). New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Ahmed, R. A., Rohner, R. P., Khaleque, A., & Gielen, U. P. (2011). Parental acceptance and rejection: Theory, measures, and research in the Arab world. East Lansing, MI: National Center for Research on Teacher Learning (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED514028).

  4. Al-Haj, M. (1989). Social research on family lifestyles among Arabs in Israel. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 20(2), 175–195.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Al-Haj, M. (1995). Kinship and modernization in developing societies: The emergence of instrumentalized kinship. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 26, 311–328.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Alt, D., & Geiger, B. (2012). Goal orientations and tendency to neutralize academic cheating: An ecological perspective. Psychological Studies, 57(4), 404–416.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Amar, R., & Toledano, S. (2001). HUDAP manual. Jerusalem: The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Arar, K., & Haj-Yehia, K. (2010). Emigration for higher education: The case of Palestinians living in Israel studying in Jordan. Journal of Higher Education Policy, 23, 358–380.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Arnett, J. J. (2001). Conceptions of the transition to adulthood: Perspectives from adolescence through midlife. Journal of Adult Development, 8, 133–143.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Baumrind, D. (1967). Child care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75, 43–88.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Baumrind, D. (1971). Present patterns of parental authority. Developmental Psychology Monographs, 4, 1–102.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Bentler, P. M. (2006). EQS 6 Structural Equations Program Manual. Encino, CA: Multivariate Software Inc.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Blos, P. (1979). The adolescent passage: Developmental issues. New York: International Universities Press.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Borg, I., & Shye, S. (1995). Facet theory: Form and content. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publication.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Buri, J. R. (1991). Parental Authority Questionnaire. Journal of Personality Assessment, 57, 110–119.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Cohen, E. H., & Amar, R. (2002). External variables as points in smallest space analysis. A theoretical, mathematical and computer-based contribution. Bulletin de Méthodologie Sociologique, 75, 40–56.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Cole, D. A., & Maxwell, S. E. (2003). Testing mediational models with longitudinal data: Questions and tips in the use of structural equation modeling. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 558–577.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Connor, H. (2004). Why the difference? A closer look at higher education. Minority Ethnic Students and Graduates. London: Institute of Employment Studies.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Davis, B. G. (2009). Tools for teaching. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. NY: Plenum.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  21. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (Eds.). (2002). Handbook of self-determination research. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Self-determination theory: A macro theory of human motivation, development, and health. Canadian Psychology, 49, 182–185.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Dor, A., & Cohen-Fridel, S. (2010). Preferred parenting styles: Do Jewish and Arab-Israeli emerging adults differ? Journal of Adult Development, 17, 146–155.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Dwairy, M. (2004). Parenting styles and mental health of Palestinian-Arab adolescents in Israel. Transcultural Psychiatry, 41, 233–252.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Dwairy, M., Achoui, M., Abouserie, R., Farah, A., Sakhleh, A. A., & Fayad, M. (2006). Parenting styles in Arab societies: A first cross-regional research study. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 37, 230–247.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Dwairy, M., Achoui, M., Filus, A., Casullo, M. M., & Vohra, N. (2010). Parenting, mental health and culture: A fifth cross-cultural research on parenting and psychological adjustment of children. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19(1), 36–41.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Dwairy, M., & Menshar, K. E. (2006). Parenting style, individuation, and mental health of Egyptian adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 29, 103–117.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Eccles, J. S., Buchanan, C. M., Flanagan, C., Fuligni, A., Midgley, C., & Yee, D. (1991). Control versus autonomy during early adolescence. Journal of Social Issues, 47, 53–68.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Estep, H. M., & Olson, J. N. (2011). Parenting style, academic dishonesty, and infidelity in college students. College Student Journal, 45. Retrieved from http://www.questia.com/library/1G1-278276704/parenting-style-academic-dishonesty-and-infidelity.

  30. Feldman, R., & Masalha, S. (2010). Parent–child and triadic antecedents of children’s social competence: Cultural specificity, shared process. Developmental Psychology, 46(2), 455–467.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Geiger, B. (2013). Female Arab students’ experience of acculturation and cultural diversity upon accessing higher education in the Northern Galilee-Israel. International Journal of Higher Education, 2, 91–106.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Ginsburg, G., & Bronstein, P. (1993). Family factors related to children’s intrinsic/extrinsic motivational orientation and academic performance. Child Development, 64, 1461–1471.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Gonzalez, A., Greenwood, G., & Hsu, J. (2001). Undergraduate students, goal orientations and their relationship to perceived parenting styles. College Student Journal, 35, 182–192.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Gonzalez-DeHass, A. R., Willems, P. P., & Doan-Holbein, M. F. (2005). Examining the relationship between parental involvement and student motivation. Educational Psychology Review, 17, 99–123.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Gracia, E., & Herrero, J. (2008). Is it considered violence? The acceptability of physical punishment of children in Europe. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 70, 210–217.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Grogan-Kaylor, A., & Otis, M. (2007). The predictors of parental use of corporal punishment. Family Relations, 56, 80–91.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Grolnick, W. S. (2009). The role of parents in facilitating autonomous self-regulation for education. Theory and Research in Education, 7, 164–173.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Guttman, L. (1968). A general non-metric technique for finding the smallest coordinate space for a configuration of points. Psychometrika, 33, 469–506.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Halpenny, A. M., Nixon, E., & Watson, D. (2010). Parents’ perspectives on parenting styles and disciplining children. Dublin: Office of the Minister for Children and Youth Affairs.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  40. Hickman, G. P., & Crossland, G. L. (2004). The predictive nature of humor, authoritative parenting style, and academic achievement on indices of initial adjustment and commitment to college among college freshmen. Journal of College Student Retention, 6, 225–245.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Hunt, D. E. (1975). Person-environment interaction: A challenge found wanting before it was tried. Review of Educational Research, 45, 209–230.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Jackson, L. M., Pratt, M. W., Hunsberger, B., & Pancer, S. M. (2005). Optimism as a mediator of the relation between perceived parental authoritativeness and adjustment among adolescents: Finding the sunny side of the street. Social Development, 14, 273–304.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Kagitcibasi, C. (2005). Autonomy and relatedness in cultural context: Implications for self and family. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 36, 1–20.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Kruskal, J. B. (1964). Nonmetric multidimensional scaling: A numerical method. Psychometrika, 29, 115–129.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Levy, S. (2005). Guttman, Louis. In Encyclopedia of social measurement (Vol. 2, pp. 175–188). Oxford: Elsevier.

  46. Linnenbrink, E. A., & Pintrich, P. R. (2002). Motivation as an enabler for academic success. School Psychology Review, 31, 313–327.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Litwin, H., & Zoabi, S. (2003). Modernization and elder abuse in an Arab-Israeli context. Research on Aging, 25, 224–246.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Maccoby, E. E., & Martin, J. A. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family: Parent–child interaction. In P. H. Mussen (Ed.) & E. M. Hetherington (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Socialization, personality, and social development (4th ed., Vol. 4, pp. 1–101). NY: Wiley.

  49. Mahmoud, M. A. (1997). Al asaleeb al shae’ea’a liltanshea’ah al ijtimae’eyah fo al reef al Masri [Common socialization methods in the Egyptian countryside]. Cairo: Al Markiz Al Qawmi Lilbohoth Al Ejtimae’eyah Wal Jinae’eyah.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Marchant, G. J., Paulson, S. E., & Rothlisberg, B. A. (2001). Relations of middle school students’ perceptions of family and school contexts with academic achievement. Psychology in the Schools, 38, 505–519.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Marsiglia, C. S., Walczyk, J., Buboltz, W., & Griffith-Ross, D. A. (2007). Impact of parenting styles and locus of control on emerging adults’ psychosocial success. Journal of Education and Human Development, 1, 1–12.

    Google Scholar 

  52. McKinney, C., Donnelly, R., & Renk, K. (2008). Perceived parenting, positive and negative perceptions of parents, and late adolescent emotional adjustment. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 13, 66–73.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Meteyer, K. B., & Jenkins, M. (2009). Dyadic parenting and children’s externalizing symptoms. Family Relations, 58, 289–302.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  54. Moon, M. (2011). The effects of divorce on children: Married and divorced parents’ perspectives. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 52, 344–349.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. O’Connor, T. G., & Scott, S. B. C. (2007). Parenting and outcomes for children. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Phinney, J. (2003). Ethnic identity and acculturation. In K. Chun, P. Organista, & G. Marin (Eds.), Acculturation: Advances in theory, measurement, and applied research (pp. 63–81). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Ratelle, C. F., Guay, F., Vallerand, R. J., Larose, S., & Senecal, C. (2007). Autonomous, controlled, and amotivated types of academic motivation: A person-oriented analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 734–746.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Reimuller, A., Hussong, A., & Ennett, S. T. (2011). The influence of alcohol-specific communication on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. Prevention Science, 12, 389–400.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  59. Ryan, R., & Deci, E. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 54–67.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  60. Steinberg, L., Blatt-Eisengart, I., & Cauffman, E. (2006). Patterns of competence and adjustment among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful homes: A replication in a sample of serious juvenile offenders. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 16, 47–58.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  61. Tay, L., & Kuykendall, L. (2013). Promoting happiness: The malleability of individual and societal subjective well-being. International Journal of Psychology, 48, 159–176.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  62. Underwood, M. K., Beron, K. J., & Rosen, L. H. (2009). Continuity and change in social and physical aggression from middle childhood through early adolescence. Aggressive Behavior, 35, 357–375.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  63. Vallerand, R. J., Blais, M. R., Brière, N. M., & Pelletier, L. G. (1989). Construction et validation de l’Échelle de Motivation en Éducation (EME). Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement, 21, 323–349.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Voronov, M., & Singer, J. A. (2002). The myth of individualism–collectivism: A critical review. The Journal of Social Psychology, 142, 461–480.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  65. Wintre, M. G., & Yaffe, M. (2000). First-year students’ adjustment to university life as a function of relationships with parents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 15, 9–37.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Dorit Alt.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Alt, D. First-Year Female College Students’ Academic Motivation as a Function of Perceived Parenting Styles: A Contextual Perspective. J Adult Dev 22, 63–75 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10804-014-9201-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Intrinsic Motivation
  • Parenting Style
  • Motivational Factor
  • Extrinsic Motivation
  • Authoritative Parenting