Autonomy and Relatedness in Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: Relationships with Parental Support and Psychological Distress

Abstract

Autonomy and relatedness are fundamental needs both in adolescence and in emerging adulthood which are affected by parental support and are linked to children’s psychological distress. The study investigated autonomy and relatedness in late adolescents and emerging adults living in Italy, analyzing the relationships with perceived parental support and psychological distress. Self-report data were collected from a sample of 325 Caucasian adolescents and emerging adults (males = 41 %) ranging in age from 17 to 26 years and living in Sicily (southern Italy). Results showed that: (a) both autonomy and relatedness were positively predicted by parental support to these needs, (b) perceived support for autonomy was positively associated with perceived support for relatedness, (c) autonomy and relatedness were positively related to each other for emerging adults, but they were not related for teens, (d) autonomy predicted negatively depression and loneliness, while relatedness predicted negatively externalizing problems (only for adolescents), stress, depression, and loneliness. Taken together, the findings confirmed that autonomy and relatedness are fundamental needs for both teens and emerging adults related to parental support and psychological health. Notwithstanding, age moderated some of the investigated relationships suggesting that autonomy and relatedness have different meanings, as well as playing different roles during adolescence and emerging adulthood.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Integrative guide for the 1991 CBCL/4-18, YSR, and TRF profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2003). Manual for the ASEBA adult forms and profiles. Burlington: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, and Families.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Allen, J. P., Hauser, S. T., Bell, K. L., & O’Connor, T. G. (1994). Longitudinal assessment of autonomy and relatedness in adolescent-family interactions as predictors of adolescent ego development and self-esteem. Child Development, 65, 179–194.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Aquilino, W. (2006). Family relationships and support systems in emerging adulthood. In J. J. Arnett & J. L. Tanner (Eds.), Emerging adults in America: Coming of age in the 21st century (pp. 193–217). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  5. Arnett, J. J. (2001). Conceptions of the transition to adulthood: Perspectives from adolescence to midlife. Journal of Adult Development, 8, 133–143.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Arnett, J. J. (2007). Adolescence and emerging adulthood: A cultural approach (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497–529.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Bentler, P. M. (2006). EQS 6 Structural Equations program manual. Encino, CA: Multivariate Software Inc.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Blatt, S. J. (1995). The destructiveness of perfectionism. American Psychologist, 50, 1003–1020.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Blatt, S. J., & Blass, R. B. (1996). Relatedness and self-definition: A dialectic model of personality development. In G. G. Noam & K. W. Fischer (Eds.), Development and vulnerability in relationships (pp. 309–338). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Blatt, S. J., & Zuroff, D. C. (1992). Interpersonal relatedness and self-definition: Two prototypes for depression. Clinical Psychology Review, 12, 527–562.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Bornstein, M. H., Haynes, O. M., Azuma, H., Galperín, C., Maital, S., Ogino, M., et al. (1998). A cross-national study of self-evaluations and attributions in parenting: Argentina, Belgium, France, Israel, Italy, Japan, and the United States. Developmental Psychology, 34, 662–676.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Buhl, H. M. (2008). Development of a model describing individuated adult child–parent relationships. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 32, 381–389.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Chen, C., Greenberger, E., Lester, J., Dong, Q., & Guo, M. S. (1998). A cross-cultural study of family and peer correlations of adolescent misconduct. Developmental Psychology, 34, 770–781.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Chirkov, V. I. (2012). The motivational nature of good living: Human autonomy and why it is good for people and societies. In D. Leontiev (Ed.), Motivation, consciousness, and self-regulation (pp. 105–126). New York: Nova Science.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Chirkov, V. I., Kim, Y., Ryan, R., & Kaplan, U. (2003). Differentiating autonomy from individualism and independence: A self-determination theory perspective on internalization of cultural orientations and well being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(1), 97–110.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Chirkov, V. I., & Ryan, R. M. (2001). Parent and teacher autonomy-support in Russian and U.S. adolescents: Common effects on well-being and academic motivation. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32(5), 618–635.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Collins, W. A., & Laursen, B. (2004). Parent-adolescent relationships and influences. In R. M., Lerner & L., Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology, 2nd ed. (pp. 331–361). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

  19. Collins, W. A., Laursen, B., Mortensen, N., Luebker, C., & Ferreira, M. (1997). Conflict processes and transitions in parent and peer relationships: Implications for autonomy and regulation. Journal of Adolescent Research, 12, 178–198.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Deci, E. L. (1980). The psychology of self-determination. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227–269.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Facilitating optimal motivation and psychological well-being across life’s domains. Canadian Psychology, 49, 14–23.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Dekovic, M., Buist, K. L., & Reitz, E. (2004). Stability and changes in problem behavior during Adolescence: Latent growth analysis. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 33, 1–12.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Eccles, J. S., Early, D., Frasier, K., Belansky, E., & McCarthy, K. (1997). The relation of connection, regulation, and support for autonomy to adolescents’ functioning. Journal of Adolescent Research, 12, 263–286.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Emde, R. N. (1994). Individuality, context, and the search for meaning. Child Development, 65, 719–737.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Fuligni, A. J., & Pedersen, S. (2002). Family obligation and the transition to young adulthood. Developmental Psychology, 38, 856–868.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Galambos, N. L., Barker, E. T., & Krahn, H. J. (2006). Depression, self-esteem, and anger in emerging adulthood: Seven-year trajectories. Developmental Psychology, 42, 350–365.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Galambos, N. L., Barker, E. T., & Tilton-Weaver, L. C. (2003). Who gets caught at maturity gap? A study of pseudomature, immature, and mature adolescents. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 27, 253–263.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Gavazzi, S. M., Yarcheck, C. M., Sullivan, J. M., Jones, S. C., & Khurana, A. (2008). Global risk factors and the prediction of recidivism rates in a sample of first-time misdemeanant offenders. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 52, 330–345.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Grolnick, W. S. (2003). The psychology of parental control: How well-meant parenting backfires. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Grolnick, W. S., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1997). Internalization within the family: The self-determination theory perspective. In J. E. Grusec & L. Kuczynski (Eds.), Parenting and children’s internalization of values: A handbook of contemporary theory (pp. 135–161). New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Grotevant, H. D., & Cooper, C. R. (1998). Individuality and connectedness in adolescent development: Review and prospects for research on identity, relationships, and context. In E. Skoe & A. von der Lippe (Eds.), Personality development in adolescence: A cross national and life span perspective (pp. 3–37). London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Guérin, E., Bales, E., Sweet, S., & Fortier, M. (2012). A meta-analysis of the influence of gender on self-determination theory’s motivational regulations for physical activity. Canadian Psychology, 53, 291–300.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Guisinger, S., & Blatt, S. J. (1994). Individuality and relatedness: Evolution of a fundamental dialectic. American Psychologist, 49, 104–111.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Herman, M. R., Dornbusch, S. M., Herron, M. C., & Herting, J. R. (1997). The influence of family regulation, connection, and psychological autonomy on six measures of adolescent functioning. Journal of Adolescent Research, 12, 34–67.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Hodgins, H. S., Koestner, R., & Duncan, N. (1996). On the compatibility of autonomy and relatedness. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 227–237.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Ingoglia, S., Lo Coco, A., Liga, F., & Lo Cricchio, M. G. (2011). Emotional separation and detachment as two distinct dimensions of parent-adolescent relationships. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 35, 271–281.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Ingoglia, S., & Lo Cricchio, M. G. (2013). Italian Adaptation of the “Autonomy and Relatedness Coding System”. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 9, 461–478.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Joussemet, M., Landry, R., & Koestner, R. (2008). A self-determination theory perspective on parenting. Canadian Psychology, 49, 194–200.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Kağitçibaşi, C. (1996). Family and human development across cultures: A view from the other side. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Kağitçibaşi, C. (2005). Autonomy and relatedness in cultural context: Implications for self and family. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 36, 403–422.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Karcher, M. J., & Santos, K. T. (2011). Promoting connectedness through developmental interventions: Adapting the Cross-Age Mentoring Program (CAMP) for youth in Asia. Asian Journal of Counselling, 18, 125–147.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Kins, E., Beyers, W., Soenens, B., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2009). Patterns of home leaving and subjective well-being in emerging adulthood: The role of motivational processes and parental autonomy support. Developmental Psychology, 45, 1416–1429.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. Koepke, S., & Denissen, J. J. A. (2012). Individuation and identity development in adolescence and emerging adulthood: Conceptual clarifications and an integrative model. Developmental Review, 32, 67–88.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. La Guardia, J. G., Ryan, R. M., Couchman, C. E., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Within-person variation in security of attachment: A self-determination theory perspective on attachment, need fulfillment, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 367–384.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  46. Lamborn, S., & Groh, K. (2009). A four part model of autonomy during emerging adolescence: Relations with adjustment. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 33, 393–401.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Leadbeater, B. J., Blatt, S. J., & Quinlan, D. M. (1995). Gender-linked vulnerabilities to depressive symptoms, stress, and problem behaviors in adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 5, 1–29.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Lekes, N., Gingras, I., Philippe, F. L., Koestner, R., & Fang, J. (2010). Parental autonomy support, intrinsic life goals and well-being among adolescents in China and North America. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39, 858–869.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. Levesque, C. S., Zuehlke, N., Stanek, L., & Ryan, R. M. (2004). Autonomy and competence in German and U.S. university students: A comparative study based on self-determination theory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 68–84.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Lewinsohn, P. M., Hops, H., Roberts, R. E., Seeley, J. R., & Andrews, J. A. (1993). Adolescent psychopathology: I. Prevalence and incidence of depression and other DSM-III-R disorders in high school students. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 133–144.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  51. Lo Cricchio, M. G., Liga, F., Ingoglia, S., & Lo Coco, A. (2012). Il distacco e la separazione emotiva nel rapporto tra genitori e figli adolescenti [The emotional detachment and separation in parent-adolescent relationship]. Psicologia clinica dello sviluppo, 16, 399–420.

    Google Scholar 

  52. Lovibond, S. H., & Lovibond, P. F. (1995). Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (2nd ed.). Sydney: Psychology Foundation of Australia.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Luciano, M. M. (2009). Autonomy and relatedness reconsidered: Learning from the Inuit. Culture and Psychology, 15, 451–462.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. McElhaney, K. B., & Allen, J. P. (2001). Autonomy and adolescent social functioning: The moderating effect of risk. Child Development, 72, 220–223.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  55. McElhaney, K. B., & Allen, J. P. (2012). Sociocultural perspectives on adolescent autonomy. In P. Kerig, M. Schulz, & S. T. Hauser (Eds.), Adolescence and beyond: Family processes and development (pp. 161–176). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  56. Muthén, B., & Kaplan, D. (1985). A comparison of some methodologies for the factor analysis of non-normal Likert variables. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 38, 171–189.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Noack, P., & Buhl, H. M. (2004). Relations with parents and friends during adolescence and early adulthood. Marriage and Family Review, 36, 31–51.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Phinney, J. S., Kim-Jo, T., Osorio, S., & Vilhjalmsdottir, P. (2005). Autonomy and relatedness in adolescent-parent disagreements: Ethnic and developmental factors. Journal of Adolescent Research, 20, 8–39.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Rankin-Esquer, L. A., Burnett, C. K., Baucom, D. H., & Epstein, N. (1997). Autonomy and relatedness in marital functioning. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 23, 175–190.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  60. Ratelle, C. F., Larose, S., Guay, F., & Senecal, C. (2005). Perceptions of parental involvement and support as predictors of college students’ persistence in a Science Curriculum. Journal of Family Psychology, 19, 286–293.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  61. Reitz, E., Dekovic, M., Meijer, A. M., & Engels, R. C. M. E. (2006). Longitudinal relations among parenting, best friends, and early adolescent problem behavior: Testing bidirectional effects. Journal of Early Adolescence, 26, 272–295.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Robbins, R. J. (1994). An assessment of perceptions of parental autonomy support and control: Child and parent correlates. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Psychology, University of Rochester.

  63. Roth, G., Assor, A., Niemiec, C. P., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2009). The negative emotional and behavioral consequences of parental conditional regard: Comparing positive conditional regard, negative conditional regard, and autonomy support as parenting practices. Developmental Psychology, 45, 1119–1142.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  64. Russell, D., Peplau, L. A., & Cutrona, C. E. (1980). The Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale: Concurrent and discriminate validity evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 472–480.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  65. Ryan, R. M. (1993). Agency and organization: Intrinsic motivation, autonomy and the self in psychological development. In J. Jacobs (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation: Developmental perspectives on motivation (Vol. 40, pp. 1–56). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

    Google Scholar 

  66. Ryan, R. M., & Connell, J. P. (1989). Perceived locus of causality and internalization: Examining reasons for acting in two domains. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 749–761.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  67. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2008). Self-determination theory and the role of basic psychological needs in personality and the organization of behavior. In O. P. John, R. W. Robbins, & L. A. Pervin (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (pp. 654–678). New York: Guilford.

    Google Scholar 

  68. Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L., & Grolnick, W. S. (1995). Autonomy, relatedness, and the self: Their relation to development and psychopathology. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Theory and methods (pp. 618–655). New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  69. Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L., Grolnick, W. S., & La Guardia, J. G. (2006). The significance of autonomy and autonomy support in psychological development and psychopathology. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Theory and method (2nd ed.) (Vol. 1, pp. 795–849). New Jersey: Wiley.

  70. Ryan, R. M., & Lynch, J. (1989). Emotional autonomy versus detachment: Revising the vicissitudes of adolescence and young adulthood. Child Development, 60, 340–356.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  71. Ryff, C. D., & Singer, B. H. (1998). The role of purpose in life and personal growth in positive human health. In P. T. P. Wong & P. S. Fry (Eds.), The human quest for meaning: A handbook of psychological research and clinical applications (pp. 213–235). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  72. Samuolis, J., Hogue, A., Dauber, S., & Liddle, H. A. (2005). Autonomy and relatedness in inner-city families of substance abusing adolescents. Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse, 15(2), 53–86.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Satorra, A., & Bentler, P. M. (1994). Corrections to test statistics and standard errors in covariance structure analysis. In A. von Eye & C. C. Clogg (Eds.), Latent variables analysis: Applications for developmental research (pp. 399–419). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  74. Satorra, A., & Bentler, P. M. (2001). A scaled difference Chi square test statistic for moment structure analysis. Psychometrika, 66, 507–514.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Scabini, E., Marta, E., & Lanz, M. (2006). The transition to adulthood and family relations. New York, NY: Psychology Press.

    Google Scholar 

  76. Schwartz, S. J., Côté, J. E., & Arnett, J. J. (2005). Identity and agency in emerging adulthood: Two developmental routes in the individualization process. Youth and Society, 37, 201–229.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Senese, P. V., Bornstein, M. H., Haynes, O. M., Rossi, G., & Venuti, P. (2012). A cross-cultural comparison of mothers’ beliefs about their parenting very young children. Infant Behavior and Development, 35, 150–157.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Sheldon, K. M., & Bettencourt, B. A. (2002). Psychological needs and subjective well-being in social groups. British Journal of Social Psychology, 41, 25–38.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  79. Sheldon, K. M., & Elliot, A. J. (1999). Goal striving, need-satisfaction, and longitudinal well-being: The Self-Concordance Model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 482–497.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  80. Sher-Censor, E., Parke, R. D., & Coltrane, S. (2011). Parents’ promotion of psychological autonomy, psychological control, and Mexican American adolescents’ adjustment. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40, 620–632.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  81. Silverberg, S. B., Tennenbaum, D. L., & Jacob, T. (1992). Adolescence and family interaction. In V. B. van Hasselt & M. Hersen (Eds.), Handbook of social development: A lifespan perspective (pp. 347–370). New York: Plenum.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  82. Smetana, J. G., Campione-Barr, N., & Metzger, A. (2006). Adolescent development in interpersonal and societal contexts. Annual Review of Psychology, 57, 255–284.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  83. Soenens, B., Berzonsky, M. D., Vansteenkiste, M., Beyers, W., & Goossens, L. (2005). Identity styles and causality orientations: In search of the motivational underpinnings of the identity exploration process. European Journal of Personality, 19, 427–442.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Soenens, B., & Beyers, W. (2012). The cross-cultural significance of control and autonomy in parent-adolescent relationships. Journal of Adolescence, 35, 243–248.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  85. Soenens, B., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2005). Antecedents and outcomes of selfdetermination in 3 life domains: The role of parents’ and teachers’ autonomy support. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34, 589–604.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  86. Soenens, B., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2010). A theoretical upgrade of the concept of parental psychological control: Proposing new insights on the basis of self-determination theory. Developmental Review, 30, 74–99.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  87. Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., Luyckx, K., Beyers, W., Goossens, L., et al. (2007). Conceptualizing parental autonomy support: Adolescent perceptions of promoting independence versus promoting volitional functioning. Developmental Psychology, 43, 633–646.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  88. Steinberg, L. (1990). Interdependency in the family: Autonomy, conflict, and harmony in the parent–adolescent relationship. In S. S. Feldman & G. R. Elliot (Eds.), At the threshold: The developing adolescent (pp. 255–276). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  89. Storvoll, E. E., & Wichstrom, L. (2003). Gender differences in changes in and stability of conduct problems from early adolescence to early adulthood. Journal of Adolescence, 26, 413–429.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  90. Thompson, R., Tabone, J. K., Litrownik, A. J., Briggs, E. C., Hussey, J. M., English, D. J., et al. (2011). Early adolescent risk behavior outcomes of childhood externalizing behavioral trajectories. Journal of Early Adolescence, 31, 234–257.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  91. Vallerand, R. J. (1997). Toward a hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (pp. 271–360). San Diego: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  92. Van de Velde, C. (2008). Devenir adulte: Sociologie comparée de la jeunesse en Europe. París: Presses Universitaires de France.

    Google Scholar 

  93. Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., Soenens, B., & Luyckx, K. (2006). Autonomy and relatedness among Chinese sojourners and applicants: Conflictual or independent predictors of well-being and adjustment? Motivation and Emotion, 30, 273–282.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  94. Visani, D., Albieri, E., Offidani, E., Ottolini, F., Tomba, E., & Ruini, C. (2011). Gender differences in psychological well-being during adolescence. In I. Brdar (Ed.), The human pursuit of well-being: A cultural approach (pp. 65–70). Dordrecht, NL: Springer.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  95. White, K. M., Speisman, J. C., & Costos, D. (1983). Young adults and their parents: Individuality to mutuality. In H. D. Grotevant & C. R. Cooper (Eds.), Adolescent development in the family: New directions in child development (pp. 61–76). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  96. Youniss, J., & Smollar, J. (1985). Adolescent relations with mothers, fathers, and friends. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  97. Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J., & Collins, W. A. (2003). Autonomy development during adolescence. In G. R. Adams & M. Berzonsky (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of adolescence (pp. 175–204). Oxford: Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Cristiano Inguglia.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Inguglia, C., Ingoglia, S., Liga, F. et al. Autonomy and Relatedness in Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: Relationships with Parental Support and Psychological Distress. J Adult Dev 22, 1–13 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10804-014-9196-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • Autonomy
  • Relatedness
  • Adolescence
  • Emerging adulthood
  • Psychological distress
  • Parental support