Journal of Adult Development

, Volume 21, Issue 4, pp 225–238 | Cite as

The Identity Issues Inventory: Identity Stage Resolution in the Prolonged Transition to Adulthood

  • Sharon E. Roberts
  • James E. Côté


The Identity Issues Inventory (I3) uses an Eriksonian framework to assess identity stage resolution among those experiencing a prolonged transition to adulthood in terms of the developmental tasks of self-identity formation (integration and differentiation) and societal-identity formation (work roles and worldview). For this first analysis of this new measure, data were collected from two samples: (1) 196 people between the ages of 18 and 48 and (2) 1,489 participants between the ages of 18 and 41. Overall, the I3 yields good factorial validity and reliability, and scores increase with age toward the “ceiling” of each task subscale, which represent anchors of a stable adult identity. Structural equation modeling assessed the relationships between these prominent identity issues and psychological health, revealing a positive relationship between the two constructs, providing evidence for predictive validity. An analysis of the second sample of 1,498 people confirmed these findings. The I3 promises to be a useful tool in future investigations of identity stage resolutions for those aged 18 and above experiencing a prolonged transition to adulthood.


Identity formation Transition to adulthood Psychological health Instrument development 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Social Development StudiesRenison University College at the University of WaterlooWaterlooCanada
  2. 2.Department of Sociology, Social Science CentreThe University of Western OntarioLondonCanada

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