Advertisement

Journal of Adult Development

, Volume 19, Issue 2, pp 66–78 | Cite as

The Role of Mothers and Media on Emerging Adults’ Religious Faith and Practices by Way of Internalization of Prosocial Values

  • Carolyn McNamara BarryEmail author
  • Laura M. Padilla-Walker
  • Larry J. Nelson
Article

Abstract

In the current study, we investigated the role of emerging adults’ internalization of prosocial values as a mediator between maternal relationship quality and two types of media use (positive and negative) and religious faith and practices. Participants included 500 undergraduate students (ranging from 18 to 26 years; 75% European American) from five American universities. Structural equation modeling results indicated that both maternal relationship quality and positive media were related positively and indirectly (by way of prosocial values) to religious faith, and maternal relationship quality was related positively and directly to religious faith. In contrast, negative media use was related negatively and directly (and indirectly by way of prosocial values) to religious faith. The discussion focuses on the role of parents and media in promoting religious faith and practices, and the extent to which emerging adults’ internalized prosocial values appear to be important in the socialization process of religious faith.

Keywords

Maternal relationship quality Media use Religiosity Internalization of prosocial values Emerging adulthood 

References

  1. Anand, V. (2007). A study of time management: The correlation between video game usage and academic performance markers. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 10, 552–559. doi: 10.1089/cpb.2007.9991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arbuckle, J. L. (2007). Amos 16.0 user’s guide. Chicago, IL: SPSS, Amos Development Corporation.Google Scholar
  3. Arnett, J. J. (1995a). Adolescents’ uses of media for self-socialization. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 24, 519–533. doi: 10.1007/BF01537054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arnett, J. J. (1995b). Broad and narrow socialization: The family in the context of a cultural theory. Journal of Marriage and Family, 57(3), 617–628. doi: 10.2307/353917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arnett, J. J. (2004). Emerging adulthood: The winding road from the late teens through the twenties. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Arnett, J. J. (2007). Socialization in emerging adulthood: From the family to the wider world, from socialization to self-socialization. In J. E. Grusec & P. D. Hastings (Eds.), Handbook of socialization: Theory and research (pp. 208–231). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  7. Arnett, J. J., & Jensen, L. A. (2002). A congregation of one: Individualized religious beliefs among emerging adults. Journal of Adolescent Research, 17, 451–467. doi: 10.1177/0743558402175002.
  8. Astin, A. W., & Astin, H. S. (2003). Spirituality in college students: Preliminary findings from a national study (pp. 1–6). Los Angeles, CA: UCLA.Google Scholar
  9. Barry, C. M., Madsen, S. D., Nelson, L. J., Carroll, J. S., & Badger, S. (2009). Friendship and romantic relationship qualities in emerging adulthood: Differential association with progress on identity development and societal tasks. Journal of Adult Development, 16(4), 209–222. doi: 10.1007/s10804-009-9067-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barry, C. M., Nelson, L. J., Davarya, S., & Urry, S. (2010). Religiosity and spirituality during the transition to adulthood. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 34(4), 311–324. doi: 10.1177/0165025409350964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barry, C. M., Padilla-Walker, L. M., Madsen, S. D., & Nelson, L. J. (2008). The impact of maternal relationship quality on emerging adults’ prosocial tendencies: Indirect effects via regulation of prosocial values. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37(5), 581–591. doi: 10.1007/s10964-007-9238-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Berger, H. A., & Ezzy, D. (2009). Mass media and religious identity: A case study of young witches. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 48(3), 501–514. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-5906.2009.01462.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boyatzis, C. J. (2005). Religious and spiritual development in childhood. In R. F. Paloutzian & C. L. Park (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality (pp. 123–143). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  14. Boyatzis, C. J., Dollahite, D. C., & Marks, L. D. (2006). The family as a context for religious and spiritual development in children and youth. In E. C. Roehlkepartain, P. E. King, L. Wagener, & P. L. Benson (Eds.), The handbook of spiritual development in childhood and adolescence (pp. 297–323). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  15. Braskamp, L. A. (2008). The religious and spiritual journeys of college students. In D. Jacobsen & R. H. Jacobsen (Eds.), The American university in a postsecular age (pp. 117–134). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1177/0165025409350964.
  16. Brelsford, G. M., & Mahoney, A. (2008). Spiritual disclosure between older adolescents and their mothers. Journal of Family Psychology, 22(1), 62–70. doi: 10.1037/0893-3200.22.1.62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brown, J. D. (2006a). Emerging adults in a media-saturated world. In J. J. Arnett & J. L. Tanner (Eds.), Emerging adults in America: Coming of age in the 21st century (pp. 279–299). Washington, DC: APA. doi: 10.1037/11381-012.
  18. Brown, T. A. (2006b). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  19. Carbery, J., & Buhrmester, D. (1998). Friendship and need fulfillment during three phases of young adulthood. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 15(3), 393–409. doi: 10.1177/0265407598153005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Carroll, J. S., Padilla-Walker, L. M., Nelson, L. J., Olson, C. D., Barry, C. M., & Madsen, S. D. (2008). Generation XXX: Pornography acceptance and use among emerging adults. Journal of Adolescent Research, 23(1), 6–30. doi: 10.1177/0743558407306348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1991). A motivational approach to self: Integration in personality. In R. A. Dienstbier (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation, 1990: Perspectives on motivation (pp. 237–288). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  22. DuBow, E. F., Huesmann, R., & Greenwood, D. (2007). Media and youth socialization: Underlying processes and moderators of effects. In J. E. Grusec & P. D. Hastings (Eds.), Handbook of socialization: Theory and research (pp. 404–430). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  23. Fowler, J. W. (1981). Stages of faith. San Francisco, CA: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  24. Fife, J., Adegoke, A., Obafemi, A., McCoy, J., & Brewer, T. (2011). Religious commitment, social support and life satisfaction among college students. College Student Journal, 45(2), 393–400. doi: 10.1111/j.2150-1092.2011.00029_36.x.Google Scholar
  25. Granqvist, P. (2002). Attachment and religiosity in adolescence: Cross-sectional and longitudinal evaluations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28(2), 260–270. doi: 10.1177/0146167202282011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Grolnick, W. S., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1997). Internalization within the family: The self-determination theory perspective. In J. E. Grusec & L. Kuczynski (Eds.), Parenting and children’s internalization of values: A handbook of contemporary theory (pp. 135–161). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  27. Grusec, J. (2002). Parental socialization and children’s acquisition of values. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting: Vol. 5: Practical issues in parenting (2nd ed., pp. 143–168). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  28. Gunnoe, M. L., & Moore, K. A. (2002). Predictors of religiosity among youth aged 17–22: A longitudinal study of the National Survey of Children. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 41(4), 613–622. doi: 10.1111/1468-5906.00141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hardy, S. A., Padilla-Walker, L. M., & Carlo, G. (2008). Parenting dimensions and adolescents’ internalisation of moral values. Journal of Moral Education, 37(2), 205–233. doi: 10.1080/03057240802009512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hill, J. P. (2009). Higher education as moral community: Institutional influences on religious participation during college. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 48(3), 515–534. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-5906.2009.01463.x.Google Scholar
  31. Jansen, K. L., Motley, R., & Hovey, J. (2010). Anxiety, depression and students’ religiosity. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 13(3), 267–271. doi: 10.1080/13674670903352837.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kirkpatrick, L. A., & Shaver, P. R. (1990). Attachment theory and religion: Childhood attachments, religious beliefs, and conversion. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 29(3), 315–334. doi: 10.2307/1387805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Koenig, L. B., McGue, M., & Iacono, W. G. (2008). Stability and change in religiousness during emerging adulthood. Developmental Psychology, 44(2), 532–543. doi: 10.1-37/0012-1649.44.2.532.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lefkowitz, E. S. (2005). “Things have gotten better:” Developmental changes among emerging adults after the transition to university. Journal of Adolescent Research, 20, 40–63.Google Scholar
  35. Larson, R., & Richards, M. (1991). Daily companionship in late childhood and early adolescence: Changing developmental contexts. Child Development, 62(2), 284–300. doi: 10.2307/1131003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lewis, C. A., Shevlin, M., McGuckin, C., & Navrtil, M. (2001). The Santa Clara strength of religious faith questionnaire: Confirmatory factor analysis. Pastoral Psychology, 49(5), 379–384. doi: 10.1023/A:1010370728546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Miller, W. R., & Thoresen, C. E. (2003). Spirituality, religion, and health: An emerging research field. American Psychologist, 58(1), 24–35. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.58.1.24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nelson, L. J., Padilla-Walker, L. M., & Carroll, J. (2010). “I believe it is wrong but I still do it:” A comparison of religious young men who do versus do not use pornography. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 2, 136–147. doi: 10.1037/a0019127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Nelson, L. J., Padilla-Walker, L. M., Carroll, J. S., Madsen, S. D., Barry, C. M., & Badger, S. (2007). “If you want me to treat you like an adult, start acting like one!” Comparing the criteria for adulthood among emerging adults and their parents. Journal of Family Psychology, 21(4), 665–674. doi: 10.1037/0893-3200.21.4.665.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. O’Connor, T. P., Hoge, D. R., & Alexander, E. (2002). The relative influence of youth and adult experiences on personal spirituality and church involvement. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 41, 723–732. doi: 10.1111/1468-5906.00157.Google Scholar
  41. Osgood, D. W., Foster, E. M., Flanagan, C., & Ruth, G. R. (2005). On your own without a net: The transition to adulthood for vulnerable populations. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  42. Padilla-Walker, L. M., Barry, C. M., Carroll, J. S., Madsen, S. D., & Nelson, L. J. (2008a). Looking on the bright side: The role of identity status and gender on positive orientations during emerging adulthood. Journal of Adolescence, 31(4), 451–467. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2007.09.001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Padilla-Walker, L. M., & Carlo, G. (2007). Personal values as a mediator between parent and peer expectations and adolescent behaviors. Journal of Family Psychology, 21(3), 538–541. doi: 10.1037/0893-3200.21.3.538.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Padilla-Walker, L. M., Nelson, L. J., Carroll, J. S., & Jensen, A. C. (2010). More than just a game: Video game and internet use during emerging adulthood. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39(2), 103–113. doi: 10.1007/s10964-008-9390-8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Padilla-Walker, L. M., Nelson, L. J., Madsen, S. D., & Barry, C. M. (2008b). The role of perceived parental knowledge on emerging adults’ risk behaviors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37, 847–859. doi: 10.1007/s10964-007-9268-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36(4), 717–731. doi: 10.3758/BF03206553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Roberts, D. F., Foehr, U. G., Rideout, V. J., & Brodie, M. (2003). Kids and media in America. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Ryan, R. M., & Connell, J. P. (1989). Perceived locus of causality and internalization: Examining reasons for acting in two domains. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(5), 749–761. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.57.5.749.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sherkat, D. E., & Ellison, C. G. (1997). The cognitive structure of a moral crusade: Conservative Protestantism and opposition to pornography. Social Forces, 75(3), 957–982. doi: 10.1093/sf/75.3.957.Google Scholar
  50. Smith, C., & Snell, P. (2009). Souls in transition: The religious and spiritual lives of emerging adults. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195371796.003.0010.Google Scholar
  51. Spilka, B., Hood, R. W., Jr., Hunsberger, B., & Gorsuch, R. (2003). The psychology of religion: An empirical approach (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  52. Steinberg, L. (2005). Cognitive and affective development in adolescence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9(2), 69–74. doi: 10.1016.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Steinberg, L., & Silk, J. S. (2002). Parenting adolescents. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting: Vol. 1: Children and parenting (2nd ed., pp. 103–133). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  54. Stoppa, T. M., & Lefkowitz, E. S. (2010). Longitudinal changes in religiosity among emerging adult college students. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 20(1), 23–38. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-7795.2009.00630.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Urberg, K. A. (1999). Introduction: Some thoughts about studying the influence of peers on children and adolescents. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 45(1), 1–12.Google Scholar
  56. Wells, G. M. (2010). The effect of religiosity and campus alcohol culture and collegiate alcohol consumption. Journal of American College Health, 58(4), 295–304. doi: 10.1080/07448480903380250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wilcox, W. B. (2002). Religion, convention, and paternal involvement. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64(3), 780–792. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2002.00780.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carolyn McNamara Barry
    • 1
    Email author
  • Laura M. Padilla-Walker
    • 2
  • Larry J. Nelson
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyLoyola University MarylandBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.School of Family LifeBrigham Young UniversityProvoUSA

Personalised recommendations