Journal of Adult Development

, Volume 12, Issue 2–3, pp 93–98 | Cite as

Neurofeedback and the Brain

  • Jay D. Gunkelman
  • Jack Johnstone


Neurofeedback is an emerging neuroscience-based clinical application, and understanding the underlying principles of neurofeedback allows the therapist to provide referrals or treatment, and provides clients with a framework for understanding the process. The brain's electrical patterns are a form of behavior, modifiable through “operant conditioning,” with the excessive brain frequencies reduced, and those with a deficit are increased. The learning curve for EEG has been described (Hardt, 1975).


neurofeedback EEG ADD/ADHD operant conditioning 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jay D. Gunkelman
    • 1
  • Jack Johnstone
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Q-Metrx, Inc.Burbank
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of CaliforniaLos Angeles

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