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School-Based Autism Rates by State: An Analysis of Demographics, Political Leanings, and Differential Identification

Abstract

We reviewed federal special education data to determine school-identified prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and other disability categories by U.S. state. We also examined whether state-level policies, demographic factors, and rates of other eligibility categories are predictive of these state ASD rates. Results indicate that overall, 1 of 81 school-aged children are served under an ASD special education eligibility. State-level demographic factors, such as socioeconomic status and political leanings were highly predictive of rates of ASD. States with higher rates of ASD had lower rates of intellectual and learning disabilities, but higher rates of Other Health Impairment (OHI).

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Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

JSL conceived and designed the study. JSL and JH conducted database searches, conducted the literature review, and drafted and edited the manuscript. LLM contributed to study design, analysis, and drafts of the final manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Laura Lee McIntyre.

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Appendix 1

Appendix 1

IDEA Definitions (https://sites.ed.gov/idea/regs/b/a/300.8)

  1. 1.

    Autism a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age three, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. Other characteristics often associated with autism are engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines, and unusual responses to sensory experiences.

  2. 2.

    Deaf-Blindness concomitant [simultaneous] hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness.

  3. 3.

    Deafness a hearing impairment so severe that a child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

  4. 4.

    Emotional Disturbance a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child’s educational performance:

    1. a.

      An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors.

    2. b.

      An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers.

    3. c.

      Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances.

    4. d.

      A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression.

    5. e.

      A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems.

  5. 5.

    Hearing Impairment an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance but is not included under the definition of “deafness.”

  6. 6.

    Intellectual Disability significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently [at the same time] with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

  7. 7.

    Multiple Disabilities concomitant [simultaneous] impairments (such as intellectual disability-blindness, intellectual disability-orthopedic impairment, etc.), the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in a special education program solely for one of the impairments. The term does not include deaf-blindness.

  8. 8.

    Orthopedic Impairment a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes impairments caused by a congenital anomaly, impairments caused by disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis), and impairments from other causes (e.g., cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures).

  9. 9.

    Other Health Impairment having limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, that—

    1. a.

      is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette syndrome; and

  10. 10.

    Specific Learning Disability a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations. The term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. The term does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities; of intellectual disability; of emotional disturbance; or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.

  11. 11.

    Speech or Language Impairment a communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

  12. 12.

    Traumatic Brain Injury an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term applies to open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more areas, such as cognition; language; memory; attention; reasoning; abstract thinking; judgment; problem-solving; sensory, perceptual, and motor abilities; psychosocial behavior; physical functions; information processing; and speech. The term does not apply to brain injuries that are congenital or degenerative, or to brain injuries induced by birth trauma.

  13. 13.

    Visual Impairment Including Blindness an impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness.

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Safer-Lichtenstein, J., Hamilton, J. & McIntyre, L.L. School-Based Autism Rates by State: An Analysis of Demographics, Political Leanings, and Differential Identification. J Autism Dev Disord 51, 2271–2283 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-020-04700-3

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Keywords

  • ASD
  • Socioeconomic status
  • Politics
  • School eligibility/identification