Diminished response to name, a potential early marker of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), may also indicate risk for other disorders characterized by attention problems, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Using a familial risk design, we examined whether response to name ability at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months of age differed between three 36-month outcome groups: ASD, ADHD Concerns, or a Comparison group. Persistent differences between the ASD and Comparison groups were evident beginning at 12 months; differences between the ADHD Concerns and Comparison groups were evident between 12 and 18 months only. Results suggest that response to name may be a general marker for ASD and ADHD risk in infancy but a specific indicator of ASD by 24-months.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Arslan, M., Warreyn, P., Dewaele, N., Wiersema, J. R., Demurie, E., & Roeyers, H. (2020). Development of neural responses to hearing their own name in infants at low and high risk for autism spectrum disorder. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 41, 100739. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2019.100739.
Auerbach, J. G., Berger, A., Atzaba-Poria, N., Arbelle, S., Cypin, N., Friedman, A., et al. (2008). Temperament at 7, 12, and 25 months in children at familial risk for ADHD. Infant and Child Development, 17(4), 321–338. https://doi.org/10.1002/icd.579.
Baranek, G. T. (1999). Autism during infancy: A retrospective video analysis of sensory-motor and social behaviors at 9–12 months of age. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29(3), 213–224.
Baranek, Grace T., Watson, L. R., Boyd, B. A., Poe, M. D., David, F. J., & McGuire, L. (2013). Hyporesponsiveness to social and nonsocial sensory stimuli in children with autism, children with developmental delays, and typically developing children. Development and Psychopathology, 25(2), 307–320. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579412001071.
Bryson, S. E., Garon, N., McMullen, T., Brian, J., Zwaigenbaum, L., Armstrong, V., … Szatmari, P. (2018). Impaired disengagement of attention and its relationship to emotional distress in infants at high-risk for autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 40(5), 487–501. https://doi.org/10.1080/13803395.2017.1372368.
Bryson, S. E., Zwaigenbaum, L., McDermott, C., Rombough, V., & Brian, J. (2008). The autism observation scale for infants: Scale development and reliability data. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(4), 731–738. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-007-0440-y.
Bufferd, S. J., Dougherty, L. R., Carlson, G. A., Rose, S., & Klein, D. N. (2012). Psychiatric disorders in preschoolers: Continuity from ages 3 to 6. American Journal of Psychiatry, 169(11), 1157–1164. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12020268.
Campbell, K., Carpenter, K. L., Hashemi, J., Espinosa, S., Marsan, S., Borg, J. S., … Dawson, G. (2019). Computer vision analysis captures atypical attention in toddlers with autism. Autism, 23(3), 619–628. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361318766247.
Clifford, S., Young, R., & Williamson, P. (2007). Assessing the early characteristics of autistic disorder using video analysis. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(2), 301–313. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-006-0160-8.
Conners, C. K., Erhardt, D., & Sparrow, E. (1999). CAARS. Adult ADHD rating scales. Technical manual. Toronto, ON: Multi-Health Systems.
Curchack-Lichtin, J. T., Chacko, A., & Halperin, J. M. (2014). Changes in ADHD symptom endorsement: Preschool to school age. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42(6), 993–1004. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-013-9834-9.
Gabrielsen, T. P., Farley, M., Speer, L., Villalobos, M., Baker, C. N., & Miller, J. (2015). Identifying autism in a brief observation. Pediatrics, 135(2), e330–e338. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2014-1428.
Gadow, K. D., & Sprafkin, J. (2013). Child & adolescent symptom inventory-5. Stony Brook, NY: Checkmate Plus.
Gimpel, G. A., & Kuhn, B. R. (2000). Maternal report of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in preschool children. Child, 26(3), 163–176. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2214.2000.00126.x.
Gotham, K., Pickles, A., & Lord, C. (2009). Standardizing ADOS scores for a measure of severity in autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(5), 693–705. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-008-0674-3.
Johnson, M. H. (1994). Visual attention and the control of eye movements in early infancy. In C. Umilta & M. Moscovitch (Eds.), Attention and performance XV: Conscious and nonconscious information processing (pp. 291–310). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Jones, E. J. H., Gliga, T., Bedford, R., Charman, T., & Johnson, M. H. (2014). Developmental pathways to autism: A review of prospective studies of infants at risk. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 39, 1–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.12.001.
Landry, R., & Bryson, S. E. (2004). Impaired disengagement of attention in young children with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(6), 1115–1122. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00304.x.
Ljungberg, J. K., Parmentier, F. B. R., Jones, D. M., Marsja, E., & Neely, G. (2014). ‘What’s in a name?’ ‘No more than when it’s mine own’. Evidence from auditory oddball distraction. Acta Psychologica, 150, 161–166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2014.05.009.
Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P. C., Gotham, K., & Bishop, S. (2012). Autism diagnostic observation schedule (2nd ed.). Torrance, CA: Western Psychological Services.
Lott, A., & Reiter, J. P. (2018). Wilson confidence intervals for binomial proportions with multiple imputation for missing data. The American Statistician. https://doi.org/10.1080/00031305.2018.1473796.
Mahone, E. M., Mostofsky, S. H., Lasker, A. G., Zee, D., & Denckla, M. B. (2009). Oculomotor anomalies in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Evidence for deficits in response preparation and inhibition. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48(7), 749–756. https://doi.org/10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181a565f1.
Mandel, D. R., Jusczyk, P. W., & Pisoni, D. B. (1995). Infants’ recognition of the sound patterns of their own names. Psychological Science, 6(5), 314–317. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.1995.tb00517.x.
McCulloch, C., Searle, S., & Neuhaus, J. (2008). Generalized linear, and mixed models. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
McGoey, K. E., DuPaul, G. J., Haley, E., & Shelton, T. L. (2007). Parent and teacher ratings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in preschool: The ADHD rating scale-IV preschool version. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 29(4), 269–276. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-007-9048-y.
Miller, M., Iosif, A.-M., Hill, M., Young, G. S., Schwichtenberg, A. J., & Ozonoff, S. (2017). Response to name in infants developing autism spectrum disorder: A prospective study. The Journal of Pediatrics, 183, 141–146.e1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.12.071.
Miller, M., Iosif, A.-M., Young, G. S., Hill, M. M., & Ozonoff, S. (2018). Early detection of ADHD: Insights from infant siblings of children with autism. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 47(5), 737–744. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2016.1220314.
Mullen, E. M. (1995). Mullen scales of early learning, AGS edition: Manual and item administrative books. Circle Pines: American Guidance Services, Inc.
Mundy, P., & Newell, L. (2007). Attention, joint attention, and social cognition. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16(5), 269–274. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00518.x.
Nadig, A. S., Ozonoff, S., Young, G. S., Rozga, A., Sigman, M., & Rogers, S. J. (2007). A Prospective study of response to name in infants at risk for autism. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 161(4), 378. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.161.4.378.
Osterling, J. A., Dawson, G., & Munson, J. A. (2002). Early recognition of 1-year-old infants with autism spectrum disorder versus mental retardation. Development and Psychopathology, 14(2), 239–251. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579402002031.
Parise, E., Friederici, A. D., & Striano, T. (2010). “Did You Call Me?” 5-month-old infants own name guides their attention. PLoS ONE, 5(12), e14208. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0014208.
Pauli-Pott, U., & Becker, K. (2011). Neuropsychological basic deficits in preschoolers at risk for ADHD: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 31, 626–637. (Peer Reviewed Journal: 2011-05663-001).
Perra, Oliver, & Gattis, Merideth. (2010). The control of social attention from 1 to 4 months. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 28(4), 891–908. https://doi.org/10.1348/026151010X487014.
R Core Team. (2019). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Retrieved July 5, 2019, from http://www.R-project.org/.
Reynolds, G. D., & Romano, A. C. (2016). The development of attention systems and working memory in infancy. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnsys.2016.00015.
Richards, J. E. (2001). Cortical indexes of saccade planning in infants. Infancy, 2(2), 123–133. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327078IN0202_1.
Rubin, D. B. (Ed.). (1987). Multiple imputation for nonresponse in surveys. New York: Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470316696.
Rutter, M., Bailey, A., & Lord, C. (2003). The social communication questionnaire. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.
Sánchez-García, A. B., Galindo-Villardón, P., Nieto-Librero, A. B., Martín-Rodero, H., & Robins, D. L. (2019). Toddler screening for autism spectrum disorder: A meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 49(5), 1837–1852. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-018-03865-2.
Tye, C., Asherson, P., Ashwood, K. L., Azadi, B., Bolton, P., & McLoughlin, G. (2014). Attention and inhibition in children with ASD, ADHD and co-morbid ASD + ADHD: An event-related potential study. Psychological Medicine, 44(5), 1101–1116. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291713001049.
van Buuren, S., & Groothuis-Oudshoorn, K. (2011). Mice: Multivariate imputation by chained equations in R. Journal of Statistical Software. https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v045.i03.
Yamaguchi, Y., Misumi, T., & Maruo, K. (2018). A comparison of multiple imputation methods for incomplete longitudinal binary data. Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics, 28(4), 645–667. https://doi.org/10.1080/10543406.2017.1372772.
Zhang, D., Roche, L., Bartl-Pokorny, K. D., Krieber, M., McLay, L., Bölte, S., … Marschik, P. B. (2018). Response to name and its value for the early detection of developmental disorders: Insights from autism spectrum disorder, Rett syndrome, and fragile X syndrome. A perspectives paper. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 82, 95–108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2018.04.004.
Conflicts of interest
The authors report no conflicts of interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Hatch, B., Iosif, AM., Chuang, A. et al. Longitudinal Differences in Response to Name Among Infants Developing ASD and Risk for ADHD. J Autism Dev Disord 51, 827–836 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-020-04369-8