Data supporting theoretical models linking autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to motor disturbance are inconclusive. In the present study, children and adolescents with ASD (n = 44) were compared with a matched group of typically developing individuals (n = 49) on both instrumental and observational assessments of motor abnormalities. No group differences were found in the instrumental data. However, more bradykinetic motor behavior was found using an observational scale in the ASD groups. More rigid motor behavior was found in the adolescents with ASD but not in the children. Individuals with ASD show significantly more hypokinetic behavior, which may not be strictly dopaminergic in origin, but may reflect a weak central coherency in neuronal networks related to the motor system in which developmental changes are present.
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The authors would like to thank Rebecca R. K. Stellato for her advice about the statistical analyses.
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Appendix: Details of the Procedure and Apparatus
Appendix: Details of the Procedure and Apparatus
Mechanical Instruments for Measuring Force Variability and Velocity Scaling
Measurement of Dyskinesia and Resting Tremor Using Force Variability (FV)
Dyskinesia can be assessed mechanically by measuring FV, as indicated by the subject’s attempt to exert constant pressure on a load cell (see Fig. 1) and measuring the variations in the force applied over time (Caligiuri and Lohr 1990, 1994; Cortese et al. 2005; Dean et al. 2004) (see Fig. 4).
Participants are instructed to exert constant target pressure, first by pushing a button with the index finger of their hand to measure hand dyskinesia (Koning et al. 2011). The button and spatula are connected to a load cell attached to a monitor showing a real-time graph indicating target and actual force applied (Figs. 1, 2). The strength required to achieve the target height on the graph is set to an equivalent of 3 Newton for the index finger (Dean et al. 2004; Koning et al. 2011). Participants perform each exercise 3 times for a duration of 20 s each, separated by 5-s rest periods. The first trial is used to accustom the patient to the test. Mean data of the two subsequent measurements are used for analysis. For dyskinesia, only force variation measured in the 0 to 3 Hz frequency range is used as this reflects dyskinesia best (Lohr and Caligiuri 1992) and is unaffected by resting tremor (which is measured at the 4 to 6 Hz frequency band) (Stein and Oguztoreli 1976). This technique has been validated for finger dyskinesia (Caligiuri and Lohr 1990, 1994; Caligiuri et al. 1995, 1997; Cortese et al. 2005; Dean et al. 2004).
Technical Specifications Force Variability Measurement
|Force measurement finger|
|Button||Plastic, directly connected to the loadcell|
|Load cell||Load sensor for 3 kg nominal|
|Intended power||3.0 N (approx. 300 grams)|
|Pressure point height||Approx. 25 cm above table top|
|Force measurement direction vertical, downward|
|Force measurement general|
|Measuring range||> 2 times intended force|
|Overload capability||Safe up to 1.5 × nominal power of the sensor|
|Deviation||< 0.4 mm at nominal force of the sensor|
|Inaccuracy||According to specs sensor: < 0.3% at the intended force|
|Analog filtering||1st order Low Pass, − 3 dB at 200 Hz|
|Sampling||12 bit, 2.5 kHz|
|Digital filtering||Low Pass, − 10% at 10 Hz, − 3 dB at 18 Hz|
|Software||MS Windows, MatLAb|
|Hardware Laptop||Dell Inspiron 1525,|
|Processor||Intel Pentium duo core T2370|
|LCD display||15.4″ widescreen with a 1280 × 800 resolution|
Measurement of Bradykinesia Using Velocity Scaling (VS)
Bradykinesia can be mechanically quantified by measuring the ability to adjust movement velocity to changing distances (Caligiuri et al. 1998, 2006). For example, normal individuals, when moving from one fixed target to another, perform different movements in roughly equal time. Thus, moving from one object to another 20 cm away takes approximately the same time as moving to an object 40 cm away when instructed to move as quickly as possible. To do this, the average velocity of the arm movement must increase to compensate for the longer target distance. Participants with bradykinesia (e.g. with Parkinson’s’ disease or drug-induced parkinsonism) are less able to scale their movement velocity and require more time as distances increase (Figs. 3, 4) (Benecke 2002; Berardelli et al. 1986; Caligiuri et al. 1998).
Participants are instructed to flex a handle (Fig. 1) with their wrist as fast but as accurately as possible in order to move a flexible cursor presented on the computer screen to a target cursor located at 25° and 45° from the midline of the wrist flexion (Fig. 3) (Caligiuri et al. 1998). The handle is connected to a potentiometer (Fig. 1) attached to monitor showing in real-time the target and flexible cursor (Fig. 3). Participants perform 32 movement measurements consisting of 16 measurements for each of the two randomly presented target locations, for each hand, for a total of 64 movements (Caligiuri et al. 1998). VS scores are expressed as degrees per second per degree (°/s/°). The VS measure is a valid and reliable measure of antipsychotic-induced bradykinesia (Caligiuri et al. 1998, 2006) (Fig. 5).
|Technical specifications velocity scaling|
|Measuring range||Measured with a potentiometer with a range of ≥ 18°. The range is limited by working end stops.|
|Inaccuracy||Angle between end stops (120°) within ± 1% degree Position measurement potentiometer within ± 2 degrees (according to specs potentiometer).|
|Handle plate||With rubber handle, dimensions approx. 90 × 45 mm2.|
|Rest position handle||Vertical (rest = middle between end stops). This position is not visible or tangibly indicated on the mechanical arrangement|
|Direction axis of rotation||Horizontal, approximately straight away from the person. Turns to the left (viewed counter-clockwise from the test subject) are measured as positive.|
|Handle rotary||Friction smooth running, mounted|
|Data acquisition instrument||Hardware: National Instruments (NI) USB-6008|
|Sampling frequency||12-Bit, 10 kS/s|
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Mostert-Kerckhoffs, M.A.L., Willems, A.E., Tenback, D.E. et al. Motor Disturbance in ASD: A Pilot Study Showing Hypokinetic Behavior?. J Autism Dev Disord 50, 415–428 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-019-04171-1
- Autism spectrum disorder
- Motor disturbance