This study investigated the effects of four behavior-change techniques for caregivers implementing a 15-week literacy intervention with their children with language impairment. Techniques include modeling, encouragement, feedback, and rewards. Random assignment within a factorial experimental design was used to determine which behavior-change technique(s) each of the 128 caregivers would receive. Caregivers’ adherence was assessed for frequency and dosage of intervention based on submission of logs and tape recordings. Children’s print knowledge was assessed at pre- and posttest to assess literacy skills. Results showed that children whose caregivers were rewarded 50 cents per session to implement the intervention made significantly greater gains in print knowledge over the treatment period. Further, these effects were fully mediated by effects of the behavior-change technique on caregivers’ adherence to the intervention.
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This research was supported by a Grant from the National Institute of Health’s Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), Grant # 1R21DC013599. We are grateful to the families who participated in this work, and the collaboration with Nationwide Children’s Hospital for supporting implementation of this study.
Conflicts of interest
The authors have no potential conflicts of interest to declare.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the Ethical Standards of the Institutional and/or National Research Committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Provision of caregiver consent was provided for all parents and children enrolled in this study.
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|Down by the Cool of the Pool (2001)||Title of Book|
|Author: Tony Mitton||Word Identification|
|“More, More, More,” said the Baby (1990)||Concept of Letter|
|Author: Vera B. Williams||Top and Bottom of Page|
|Farmer Duck (1991)||Page Order|
|Author: Martin Waddell||Names of Letters|
|Rumble in the Jungle (1998)||Word Identification|
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|David Gets in Trouble (2002)||Author|
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|The Way I Feel (2000)||Short Words versus Long Words|
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|Dear Mr. Blueberry (1991)||Title of Book|
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|Animal Action ABC (1996)||Letters versus Words|
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|Miss Bindergarten Gets Ready For Kindergarten (1996)||Upper-Case versus Lower-Case Letters|
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|The Little Mouse, The Red Ripe Strawberry, and The Big Hungry Bear (1984)||Names of Letters|
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|The Recess Queen (2002)||Short Words versus Long Words|
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Justice, L.M., Chen, J., Tambyraja, S. et al. Increasing Caregivers’ Adherence to an Early-Literacy Intervention Improves the Print Knowledge of Children with Language Impairment. J Autism Dev Disord 48, 4179–4192 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-018-3646-2
- Language impairment
- Developmental disability
- Emergent literacy
- Parent-implemented interventions
- Home literacy