Additive Effect of Variably Penetrant 22q11.2 Duplication and Pathogenic Mutations in Autism Spectrum Disorder: To Which Extent Does the Tree Hide the Forest?
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The 22q11.2 duplication is a variably penetrant copy number variant (CNV) associated with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations including autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and epilepsy. Here, we report on pathogenic HUWE1 and KIF1A mutations in two severely affected ASD/ID participants carrying a 22q11.2 duplication. Based on previous studies, this CNV was originally considered as disease-causing. Yet, owing to their clinical severity, the participants were further investigated by next generation sequencing and eventually found to carry pathogenic mutations in HUWE1 and KIF1A respectively. We suggest giving consideration to additive effect of 22q11.2 duplication and pathogenic mutations when clinical presentation is either unusually severe or associated with atypical features. Caution should be exercised when delivering genetic counseling for variably penetrant CNVs, as uncertain penetrance of this CNV may lead to ignore additive pathogenic mutations. Systematic panel or exome sequencing of known ASD genes should be recommended when counseling families of patients carrying variably penetrant CNV.
Keywords22q11.2 duplication Incomplete penetrance Genetic counseling Autism spectrum disorders Next generation sequencing Epilepsy
Pr Nicolas Franck for his advice and le Vinatier Hospital for its support.