Sex-Differences in Children Referred for Assessment: An Exploratory Analysis of the Autism Mental Status Exam (AMSE)

  • Roald A. Øien
  • Sara M. Vambheim
  • Logan Hart
  • Anders Nordahl-Hansen
  • Craig Erickson
  • Logan Wink
  • Martin R. Eisemann
  • Frederick Shic
  • Fred R. Volkmar
  • David Grodberg
Original Paper

Abstract

The autism mental status exam is an eight-item observational assessment that structures the way we observe and document signs and symptoms of ASD. Investigations of test performance indicate strong sensitivity and specificity using gold-standard assessment as reference standard. This study aims to explore potential sex differences in AMSE test performance and observations of 123 children referred for autism assessment. Results indicates more language deficits in females with ASD than in males with ASD and less sensory symptoms in females compared to males with ASD. The AMSE performance is similar in identifying ASD and non-ASD in females compared to males. Less disruptive behaviors in females, might cause a need for a bigger hit to other areas of development to raise concern.

Keywords

Sex differences Gender differences Behavior Autistic traits Autism-related symptoms 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We want to sincerely thank all individuals that were a part of the initial data collection, and all colleagues that have been involved in the initial data collection.

Author Contribution

RAØ conceptualized and designed the study, drafted the initial manuscript, carried out the analyses, reviewed and revised the manuscript, and approved the submission of the final manuscript. DG and FS conceptualized and designed the study, supervised the initial manuscript, supervised the analyses, reviewed and revised the manuscript, and approved the final manuscript for submission. LH, SMV, LW, CE, AN, MRE and FRV reviewed and revised the manuscript, played prominent roles in the design of the methods, analyses and results, and approved the final manuscript as submitted.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest relevant to this article to disclose.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roald A. Øien
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sara M. Vambheim
    • 1
  • Logan Hart
    • 1
    • 2
  • Anders Nordahl-Hansen
    • 3
  • Craig Erickson
    • 5
  • Logan Wink
    • 5
  • Martin R. Eisemann
    • 1
  • Frederick Shic
    • 4
  • Fred R. Volkmar
    • 2
  • David Grodberg
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUiT - The Arctic University of NorwayTromsöNorway
  2. 2.Child Study Center, Yale School of MedicineYale UniversityNew HavenUSA
  3. 3.Department of Special Needs EducationUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  4. 4.Department of PediatricsUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  5. 5.Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical CenterCincinnatiUSA

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