Forty-one high-risk infants (HR) with an older sibling with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were observed longitudinally at 10, 12, 18 and 24 months of age during a tool use task in a play-like scenario. Changes in grasp types and functional actions produced with a spoon were assessed during elicited tool use. Outcome and vocabulary measures were available at 36 months, distinguishing: 11 HR-ASD, 15 HR-language delay and 15 HR-no delay. Fewer HR-ASD infants produced grasp types facilitating spoon use at 24 months and functional actions at 10 months than HR-no delay. Production of functional actions in HR infants at 10 months predicted word comprehension at 12 months and word production at 24 and 36 months.
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This study was supported by a Fulbright Visiting Scholar Program Scholarship awarded by the U.S. – Italy Fulbright Commission to Dr. Sparaci; by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Grant Agreement No. 660468 to Dr. Sparaci; by NIH R01 HD54979 to Dr. Iverson. Special thanks to Kristen M. Korner who acted as second coder. We thank Nina B. Leezenbaum, Krista K. Pugliesi, Shelby M. Parsons, Maura Hilser and Julija Hetherington at the Infant Communication Lab, University of Pittsburgh for their invaluable work in recruitment, data collection, assessment of participating families and for assistance with data management. Special thanks go to the parents and children who participated in this study. Portions of these data were presented at the International Congress on Infant Studies, New Orleans, Luisiana, May 2016.
This study was funded by the Fulbright Visiting Scholar Program awarded by the U.S. – Italy Fulbright Commission, the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Grant Agreement No. 660468 and NIH R01 HD54979.
Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflict of interest.
Informed Consent was obtained from parents of all infants who participated in this study.
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Sparaci, L., Northrup, J.B., Capirci, O. et al. From Using Tools to Using Language in Infant Siblings of Children with Autism. J Autism Dev Disord 48, 2319–2334 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-018-3477-1