Brief Report: Factor Analysis of the Brazilian Version of the Adult Autism Spectrum Quotient
This study examined the factor structure of the Brazilian version of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient. This is a self-report questionnaire for continuous and quantitative assessment of autistic spectrum traits in adults. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed on the five-factor model (social skill, attention switching, attention to detail, communication and imagination) proposed by the original authors, support not being found for this model in our sample. An exploratory factor analysis was then performed that resulted in an alternative three-factor model (social skills, details/patterns and imagination). Confirmatory factor analysis of the latter model revealed adequate psychometric indexes. The Brazilian version of the AQ was shown to be an adequate instrument for the evaluation of signs compatible with the autism spectrum in adults.
KeywordsAutism Autism Spectrum Quotient Factor analysis Validation
Julia Horta Egito is supported by a PhD grant (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo, FAPESP -2016/17242-5). Ana Alexandra Caldas Osório is supported by research Grant No. 161001 (Fundo Mackenzie de Pesquisa—MackPesquisa). The authors wish to thank Beatriz Marques Sanchez for her assistance in the translation process, Gabriel Gaudêncio do Rêgo for his assistance with graphic edition and Ana Karla Silva Soares with her assistance in data analysis.
JHE participated in study design, data collection, statistical analyses and manuscript preparation; GMRF and MIG participated in study design, data collection and data analyses; AACO conceived and designed the study, coordinated the statistical data analyses, and participated in manuscript preparation and review. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
- Ashley, J., Harrison, A. J., Long, K. A., Tommet, D. C., & Jones, R. N. (2017). Examining the role of race, ethnicity, and gender on social and behavioral ratings within the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 47(9), 2770–2782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Skinner, R., Martin, J., & Clubley, E. (2001). The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ): Evidence from asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31(1), 5–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bilich, F., Silva, R., & Ramos, P. (2006). Análise de flaxibilidade em economia da informação: modelagem de equações estruturais. Revista de Gestão da Tecnologia e Sistemas de Informação, 3(2), 93–122.Google Scholar
- Broadbent, J., Galic, I., & Stokes, M. A. (2013). Validation of autism spectrum quotient adult version in an Australian sample. Autism research and treatment, pp. 1–7.Google Scholar
- Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. (2005). Análise Multivariada de Dados. Porto Alegre: Bookman.Google Scholar
- Hoekstra, R. A., Bartels, M., Cath, D. C., & Boomsma, D. I. (2008). Factor structure, reliability and criterion validity of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ): A study in Dutch population and patient groups. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(8), 1555–1566.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Kline, P. (1994). An easy guide to factor analysis. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Matson, J. L., Matheis, M., Burns, C. O., Esposito, G., Venuti, P., Pisula, E., et al. (2017). Examining cross-cultural differences in autism spectrum disorder: A multinational comparison from Greece, Italy, Japan, Poland, and the United States. European Psychiatry, 42, 70–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tolentino, T. M., Maia, M. D. F. D. M., Formiga, N. S., Sousa, B. V. D. O., & Melo, G. F. (2015). Modelagem estrutural fatorial e consistência interna da escala de autoestima de Rosenberg em adolescentes brasileiros. Revista de Psicologia, 6(2), 40–49.Google Scholar