Brief Report: Relationship Between ADOS-2, Module 4 Calibrated Severity Scores (CSS) and Social and Non-Social Standardized Assessment Measures in Adult Males with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
The ADOS-2 Modules 1–3 now include a standardized calibrated severity score (CSS) from 1 to 10 based on the overall total raw score. Subsequent research published CSS for Module 4 (Hus, Lord, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 44(8):1996–2012, 2014); however more research is needed to examine the psychometric properties of this CSS. Forty males with ASD completed an assessment battery consisting of ADOS-2 Module 4 and other clinical measures assessing core ASD symptomology and comorbidity. Pearson correlation analyses found that CSS did not correlate with measures that assessed core social deficits of ASD or general psychiatric co-morbidity, but CSS did correlate negatively with intellectual quotient. These findings provide information on the limitations and relevance of CSS to be taken into account in future clinical evaluations of ASD.
KeywordsCalibrated severity scores ADOS-2, Module 4 Verbal intellectual quotient SRS-2 AQ SCL-90
This research was supported in part by the Silvio O Conte Center for Oxytocin and Social Cognition from the National Institute of Mental Health 1P50MH100023. We thank Catherine Rice, Nikolaou Loizos, Lauren Castriota and Nichole Evans for their assistance. Portions of this paper have been presented at the annual meeting of the International Society for Autism Research, Baltimore, MD, 2016.
MJM conceived of the study, conducted the literature review, participated in the design, assisted with data collection, performed the initial statistical analyses, and drafted the manuscript, and co-wrote all revisions. OYO coordinated assessment protocols, participated in the design, collected data and doubled checked reliability of data, and read, edited, and approved original submission. GAC-G assisted with data analyses, and read, edited, and approved initial submission. MJS collected data, and read, edited, and approved initial submission. JFC consulted to data collection process, and read, edited, and approved initial submission. LJY conceived of larger study, secured study finding, provided statistical input, and read, edited, and approved initial submission. EA assisted with design, conducted analyses, produced figures, and read, edited, and approved initial submission and co-drafted all revisions.
- Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Skinner, R., Martin, J., & Clubley, E. (2001). The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ): Evidence from Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31(1), 5–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Constantino, J. N., & Gruber, C. P. (2005). The Social Responsiveness Scale Manual. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
- Constantino, J. N., & Gruber, C. P. (2012). The Social Responsiveness Scale (2nd ed.) (SRS-2) [Manual]. Torrance, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
- Constantino, J. N., LaVesser, P. D., Zhang, Y., Abbacchi, A. M., Gray, T., & Todd, R. D. (2007). Rapid quatitative assessment of autistic social impairment by classroom teachers. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(12), 1668–1676. doi: 10.1097/chi.0b013e318157cb23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Derogatis, L. R. (1994). Symptom checklist-90-revised. San Antonio, TX: Pearson.Google Scholar
- Eack, S. M., Greenwald, D. P., Hogarty, S. S., Bahorik, A. L., Litschge, M. Y., Mazefsky, C. A., & Minshew, N. J. (2013). Cognitive enhancement therapy for adults with autism spectrum disorder: Results of an 18-month feasibility study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(12), 2866–2877. doi: 10.1007/s10803-013-1834-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Esler, A. N., Bal, V. H., Guthrie, W., Wetherby, A., Weismer, S. E., & Lord, C. (2015). The autism diagnostic observation schedule, toddler module: standardized severity scores. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(9), 2704–2720. doi: 10.1007/210803-015-2432-7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Gaus, V. L. (2007). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for adult Asperger Syndrome. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Klin, A., Saulnier, C. A., Sparrow, S. S., Cicchetti, D. V., Volkmar, F. R., & Lord, C. (2007). Social and communication abilities and disabilities in higher functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders: The Vineland and the ADOS. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(4), 748–759. doi: 10.1007/s/10803-006-0229-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P. C., & Risi, S. (1999). Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (WPS edn.). manual. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
- Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P. C., Risi, S., Gotham, K., & Bishop, S. L. (2012). Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, second edition (ADOS-2) manual (Part I): Modules 1–4. Torrance, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
- Pugliese, C. E., Kenworthy, L., Bal, V. H., Wallace, G. L., Yerys, B. E., Maddox, B. B.,…,Anthony, L. G. (2015). Replication and comparison of the newly proposed ADOS-2 Module 4 algorithm in ASD without ID: A multi-site study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(12), 3919–3931. doi: 10.1007/210803-015-2586-3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Rutter, M., Le Couteur, A., & Lord, C. (2003). Autism diagnostic interview-revised (ADI-R). Torrence, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
- Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (1984). Vineland adaptive behavior scales. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
- Wechsler, D., & Zhou, X. (2011). Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, second edition (WASI-II) manual. San Antonio, TX: Pearson Clinical Assessment.Google Scholar
- Wong, C., Odom, S. L., Hume, K., Cox, A. W., Fettig, A., Kucharczyk, S.,…,Schultz, T. R. (2014). Evidence-based practices for children, youth, and young adults with autism spectrum disorder. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina, Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute, Autism Evidence-Based Practice Review Group.Google Scholar