Bone Mineral Density in Boys Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case-Control Study

  • Kelly Barnhill
  • Lucas Ramirez
  • Alan Gutierrez
  • Wendy Richardson
  • C. Nathan Marti
  • Amy Potts
  • Rebeca Shearer
  • Claire Schutte
  • Laura Hewitson
Original Paper

Abstract

This study compared bone mineral density (BMD) of the spine obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), nutritional status, biochemical markers, and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in 4–8 year old boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) with a group of age-matched, healthy boys without ASD. Boys with ASD had significantly lower spine BMD compared to controls but this was not correlated with any biochemical markers, dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D, elimination diet status, or GI symptomology. Reduced BMD in 4–8 year old boys with ASD appears to involve factors other than nutrient intake and GI status, and requires further study.

Keywords

Bone mineral density Autism spectrum disorder Nutrition Gastrointestinal symptoms Gluten-free/casein-free diet Vitamin D 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kelly Barnhill
    • 1
  • Lucas Ramirez
    • 1
    • 3
  • Alan Gutierrez
    • 1
  • Wendy Richardson
    • 1
  • C. Nathan Marti
    • 2
  • Amy Potts
    • 1
    • 4
  • Rebeca Shearer
    • 1
  • Claire Schutte
    • 1
  • Laura Hewitson
    • 1
  1. 1.The Johnson Center for Child Health and DevelopmentAustinUSA
  2. 2.Abacist Analytics, LLCAustinUSA
  3. 3.Care Improvement Plus PractitionersXLHealthPleasant GroveUSA
  4. 4.Oklahoma City UniversityOklahomaUSA

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