The Japanese version of the Children’s Communication Checklist-2 (CCC-2) was rated by caregivers in a large national population sample of 22,871 children aged 3–15 years. The General Communication Composite (GCC) of the CCC-2 exhibited a distribution with a single-factor structure. The GCC distribution between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and language impairment (LI) groups in the general population fit inside a bell curve with significant overlap with the general population, and a continuum was evident between groups. No evidence of a natural cutoff that would differentiate categorically affected from unaffected children was seen. The Social Interaction Deviance Composite (SIDC) supported the notion that ASD and LI are on the opposite endpoints of a SIDC continuum of communication impairment.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Bishop, D. V. (2003). The Children’s Communication Checklist (2nd edn.). London: Harcourt Assessment.
Bishop, D. V. (2010). Overlaps between autism and language impairment: phenomimicry or shared etiology? Behavior Genetics, 40(5), 618–629. doi:10.1007/s10519-010-9381-x.
Bishop, D. V. (2014). Ten questions about terminology for children with unexplained language problems. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 49(4), 381–415.
Bishop, D. V., Maybery, M., Wong, D., Maley, A., & Hallmayer, J. (2006). Characteristics of the broader phenotype in autism: A study of siblings using the Children’s Communication Checklist-2. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 141B(2), 117–122. doi:10.1002/ajmg.b.30267.
Bishop, D. V., & Norbury, C. F. (2002). Exploring the borderlands of autistic disorder and specific language impairment: A study using standardised diagnostic instruments. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43(7), 917–929. doi:10.1111/1469-7610.00114.
Boucher, J. (2012). Research review: Structural language in autistic spectrum disorder—characteristics and causes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(3), 219–233. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02508.x.
Constantino, J. N., & Gruber, C. P. (2005). Social responsiveness scale (SRS). http://eric.ed.gov/.
Constantino, J. N., & Todd, R. D. (2003). Autistic traits in the general population: A twin study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 524–530. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.60.5.524.
Crystal, D. (1987) The Cambridge encyclopedia of langauge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dollaghan, C. A. (2011). Taxometric analyses of specific language impairment in 6-year-old children. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 54, 1361–1371. doi:10.1044/1092-4388.
Fukuda, S., & Fukuda, S. (2001). The acquisition of complex predicates in Japanese specifically language-impaired and normally developing children. Brain and Language, 77(3), 305–320. doi:10.1006/brln.2000.2404.
Geurts, H., & Embrechts, M. (2008). Language profiles in ASD, SLI, and ADHD. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 1931–1943. doi:10.1007/s10803-008-0587-1.
Glumbić, N., & Brojčin, B. (2012). Factor structure of the Serbian version of the Children’s Communication Checklist-2. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33, 1352–1359. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2012.03.010.
Helland, W. A., Biringer, E., Helland, T., & Heimann, M. (2009). The usability of a Norwegian adaptation of the Children’s Communication Checklist Second Edition (CCC-2) in differentiating between language impaired and non-language impaired 6- to 12-year-olds. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 50, 287–292. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9450.2009.00718.x.
Henrichs, J., Rescorla, L., Schenk, J. J., Schmidt, H. G., Jaddoe, V. W., Hofman, A., … Tiemeier, H. (2011). Examining continuity of early expressive vocabulary development: The generation R study. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 54(3), 854–869. doi:10.1044/1092-4388.
Ito, T., Fukuda, S., & Fukuda, S. (2009). Differences between grammatical and lexical development in Japanese specific language impairment: A case study. Poznań Studies in Contemporary Linguistics, 45(2), 211–221. doi:10.2478/v10010-009-0005-7.
Kabani, N. J., Macdonald, D., Evans, A., & Gopnik, M. (1997). Neuroanatomical correlates of familial language impairment: A preliminary report. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 10(2–3), 203–214. doi:10.1016/S0911-6044(97)00009-2.
Kalnak, N., Peyrard-Janvid, M., Sahlén, B., & Forssberg, H. (2012). Family history interview of a broad phenotype in specific language impairment and matched controls. Genes, Brain and Behavior, 11(8), 921–927. doi:10.1111/j.1601-183X.2012.00841.x.
Kamio, Y., Inada, N., Moriwaki, A., Kuroda, M., Koyama, T., Tsujii, H., … Constantino, J. N. (2013). Quantitative autistic traits ascertained in a national survey of 22 529 Japanese schoolchildren. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 128, 45–53. doi:10.1111/acps.12034.
Kim, Y. S., Leventhal, B. L., Koh, Y. J., Fombonne, E., Laska, E., Lim, E. C., … Grinker, R. R. (2011). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder in a total population sample. American Journal of Psychiatry, 168(9), 904–912. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2011.10101532.
Leyfer, O. T., Tager-Flusberg, H., Dowd, M., Tomblin, J. B., & Folstein, S. E. (2008). Overlap between autism and specific language impairment: comparison of autism diagnostic interview and autism diagnostic observation schedule scores. Autism Research, 1, 284–296. doi:10.1002/aur.43.
Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P., & Risi, S. (1999). Autism diagnostic observation schedule. http://eric.ed.gov/.
Loucas, T., Charman, T., Pickles, A., Simonof, E., Chandler, S., Meldrum, D., & Baird, G. (2008). Autistic symptomatology and language ability in autism spectrum disorder and specific language impairment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 1184–1192. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01951.x.
MacCallum, R. C., Browne, M. W., & Sugawara, H. M. (1996). Power analysis and determination of sample size for covariance structure modeling. Psychological Methods, 1, 130–149.
McGregor, K. K., Berns, A. J., Owen, A. J., Michels, S. A., Duff, D., Bahnsen, A. J., & Lloyd, M. (2012). Associations between syntax and the lexicon among children with or without ASD, and language impairment. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(1), 35–47. doi:10.1007/s10803-011-1210-4.
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. (2010). Annual report on school basic survey. Tokyo: Nikkei.
Norbury, C. F., Nash, M., Baird, G., & Bishop, D. V. (2004). Using a parental checklist to identify diagnostic groups in children with communication impairment: a validation of the Children’s Communication Checklist-2. International Journal of Communication Disorders, 39(3), 345–364. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1460-6984.
Oi, M., Fujino, H., Tsukidate, N., Kamio, Y., Gondou, K., & Matsui, T. (2016) Japanese version of Children’s Communication Checklist-2. Tokyo: Nihon Bunka Kagakusha.
Perkins, M. (2007). Pragmatic impairment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pickles, A., & Angold, A. (2003). Natural categories or fundamental dimensions: On carving nature at the joints and the rearticulation of psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 15(3), 529–551. doi:10.1017/S0954579403000282.
Rutter, M., Bailey, A., & Lord, C. (2003). The social communication questionnaire. http://eric.ed.gov/.
Japan Cabinet Secretary (2010). Retrieved May 29, 2015 from http://www.cas.go.jp/jp/seisaku/youji/dai2/sankou1.pdf.
Tomblin, B. (2011). Co-morbidity of autism and SLI: Kinds, kin and complexity. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 46(2), 127–137. doi:10.1111/j.1460-6984.2011.00017.x.
Tomblin, J. B., Records, N. L., Buckwalter, P., Zhang, X., Smith, E., & O’Brien, M. (1997). Prevalence of specific language impairment in kindergarten children. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 40, 1245–1260. doi:10.1044/jslhr.4006.1245.
Tsukidate, N., Oi, M., Gondo, K., Matsui, T., & Kamio, Y. (2015). Development of the Japanese version of the Children’s Communication Checklist-2 (CCC-2): Consideration of standardized score. Japanese Journal of Communication Disorders, 32(2), 99–108.
Ueno, K., Takamura, M., & Kaizu, A. (2008). Learning disabilities Inventory–Revised. Tokyo: Nihon-Bunka Kagakusha.
Ullman, M. T., & Gopnik, M. (1999). Inflectional morphology in a family with inherited specific language impairment. Applied Psycholinguistics, 20(1), 51–117. doi:10.1017/S0142716499001034.
Vézina, M., Sylvestre, A., & Fossard, M. (2013). Développement de la version québécoise francophone du Children’s Communication Checklist–2 (CCC-2). Normalisation et équivalence métrique [Development of a Quebec French Version of the Children’s Communication Checklist-2 (CCC-2). Normalisation and metric equivalence]. Revue Canadienne d’Orthophonie et d’Audiologie, 37, 156–168. http://cjslpa.ca/.
Weismer, E. S. (2007). Typical talkers, late talkers, and children with specific language impairment: a language endowment spectrum? In R. Paul (Ed.), The influence of developmental perspectives on research and practice in communication disorders: A Festschrift for Robin S. Chapman (pp. 83–102). Mahwah: Erlbaum.
Wing, L., & Gould, J. (1979). Severe impairments of social interaction and associated abnormalities in children: Epidemiology and classification. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 9, 11–29. doi:10.1007/BF01531288.
Wing, L., Leekam, S. R., Libby, S. J., Gould, J., & Larcombe, M. (2002). The diagnostic interview for social and communication disorders: Background, inter-rater reliability and clinical use. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 43(3), 307–325. doi:10.1111/1469-7610.00023.
We would like to thank Professor Dorothy Bishop for her comments on our manuscript.
This research was supported by a grant (Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research No. 23330276) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science to Dr. Oi; and by research grants from the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare of Japan to Dr. Kamio (H19-KOKORO-006 and H20-KOKORO-004).
MO has written the manuscript. HF has conducted primary component analysis, NT has conducted confirmatory factor analysis. YK has provided framework for the manuscript. YY, MK and CH have provided data for the ASD group including ADOS and K-ABC scores. KG and TM have helped MO writing the manuscript.
The current study was approved by the medical research ethics committee at Kanazawa University and performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments. The study protocol was also approved by the Ethics Committee of the National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Japan.
Informed consent was obtained from the parents of the participant children before the study began.
About this article
Cite this article
Oi, M., Fujino, H., Tsukidate, N. et al. Quantitative Aspects of Communicative Impairment Ascertained in a Large National Survey of Japanese Children. J Autism Dev Disord 47, 3040–3048 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-017-3226-x
- Language impairment