Correlates of Police Involvement Among Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder
- 728 Downloads
This study aimed to describe police interactions, satisfaction with police engagement, as well as examine correlates of police involvement among 284 adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) followed over a 12- to 18-month period. Approximately 16% of individuals were reported to have some form of police involvement during the study period. Aggressive behaviors were the primary concern necessitating police involvement. Individuals with police involvement were more likely to be older, have a history of aggression, live outside the family home, and have parents with higher rates of caregiver strain and financial difficulty at baseline. Most parents reported being satisfied to very satisfied with their children’s police encounters. Areas for future research are discussed in relation to prevention planning.
KeywordsPolice Autism spectrum disorder Criminal justice system Victimization
This research was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research [MOP 102677]. Dr. Weiss is supported by the Chair in ASD Treatment and Care Research (Canadian Institutes of Health Research #284208 in partnership with NeuroDevNet, Sinneave Family Foundation, CASDA, Autism Speaks Canada, and Health Canada). The authors would like to thank all of the families for their time and participation.
YL, JAW, AMP and EB were the primary creators of the concept and design of this study. The analytic approach was created by YL and AT. AT and YL were responsible for creating the first draft and integrating all co-author input. All co-authors contributed substantively to the interpretation of the results and to draft revisions, and have approved the final version of the manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV-TR. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
- Bureau of Justice Statistics (2014). Crimes against persons with disabilities, 2009–2012 statistical tables. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.Google Scholar
- Debbaudt, D. (2006). Disclosing to the Authorities. In Dinah Murray (Ed.), Coming out Asperger: Diagnosis, disclosure and self-confidence. Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.Google Scholar
- Durose, M., Smith, E., & Langan, P. (2007). Contact between police and the public 2005. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.Google Scholar
- Fry, A. J., O’riordan, D. P., & Geanellos, R. (2002). Social control agents or front-line carers for people with mental health problems: Police and mental health services in Sydney, Australia. Health and Social Care in the Community, 10(4), 277–286. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2524.2002.00371.x.
- Hall, A. V., Godwin, M., Wright, H. H., & Abramson, R. K. (2007). Criminal justice issues and autistic disorder. Growing up with Autism, 272–292.Google Scholar
- Helverschou, S. B., Rasmussen, K., Steindal, K., Søndanaa, E., Nilsson, B., & Nøttestad, J. A. (2015). Offending profiles of individuals with autism spectrum disorder: A study of all individuals with autism spectrum disorder examined by the forensic psychiatric service in Norway between 2000 and 2010. Autism, 19(7), 850–858.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kawakami, C., Ohnishi, M., Sugiyama, T., Someki, F., Nakamura, K., & Tsujii, M. (2012). The risk factors for criminal behaviour in high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs): A comparison of childhood adversities between individuals with HFASDs who exhibit criminal behaviour and those with HFASD and no criminal histories. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 6(2), 949–957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Levy, S. E., Giarelli, E., Lee, L. C., Schieve, L. A., Kirby, R. S., Cunniff, C., & Rice, C. E. (2010). Autism spectrum disorder and co-occurring developmental, psychiatric, and medical conditions among children in multiple populations of the United States. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 31(4), 267–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Molteni, S., Carbon, M., Lops, J., Soto, E. C., Cervesi, C., Sheridan, E. M., & Foley, C. (2016). Correlates of subjective caregiver strain in caregivers of youth evaluated in a pediatric psychiatric emergency room. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. doi: 10.1089/cap.2015.0028.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Naglieri, J. A., & Chambers, K. M. (2009). Psychometric issues and current scales for assessing autism spectrum disorders. In S. Goldstein, J. A. Naglieri & S. Ozonoff (Eds.), Assessment of autism spectrum disorders (pp. 5–90). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Rutter, M., Bailey, A., & Lord, C. (2003). The social communication questionnaire: Manual. Torrance: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
- Schieve, L. A., Gonzalez, V., Boulet, S. L., et al. (2012). Concurrent medical conditions and health care use and needs among children with learning and behavioral developmental disabilities, national health interview survey, 2006–2010. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33(2), 467–476.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Statistics Canada (2006). Census forward sortation area. Ottawa, ON: Geography Division.Google Scholar
- Sterzing, P. R., Shattuck, P. T., Narendorf, S. C., Wagner, M., & Cooper, B. P. (2012). Bullying involvement and autism spectrum disorders: Prevalence and correlates of bullying involvement among adolescents with an autism spectrum disorder. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 166(11), 1058–1064.CrossRefGoogle Scholar