Advertisement

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 47, Issue 6, pp 1708–1715 | Cite as

Aging and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Naturalistic, Longitudinal Study of the Comorbidities and Behavioral and Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Adults with ASD

  • Elizabeth A. WiseEmail author
  • Marcia D. Smith
  • Peter V. Rabins
Original Paper

Abstract

Little is known about Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in persons over age 50. In a retrospective, naturalistic review of 74 individuals aged 30 and older meeting DSM-5 criteria for ASD, the point prevalence of behavioral and neuropsychiatric symptoms (BNPS) declined significantly for 12 of 13 BNPS over a mean of 25 years while many other features of ASD remained stable. GI disorders (68.9%) and seizure disorders (23%) were common, and 25.7% of the sample had a BMI >30. Females were more likely to engage in screaming (p < 0.05) and oppositional behavior (p < 0.05). Current age did not have a significant effect on BNPS prevalence.

Keywords

Adulthood Aging Autism spectrum disorder Neuropsychiatric symptoms 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We wish to acknowledge and thank the staff at CSAAC, including Dide Cimen Berube, Sam Asiamah, and Janet Burch, who participated in coordination of the study.

Authors’ contributions

PV conceived of the study, participated in its design and interpretation of the data, and helped to draft the manuscript; MS participated in the design and coordination of the study; EW participated in the design and coordination of the study, performed the measurement and statistical analysis, and drafted the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

References

  1. Ballaban-Gil, K., Rapin, I., Tuchman, R., & Shinnar, S. (1996). Longitudinal examination of the behavioral, language, and social changes in a population of adolescents and young adults with autistic disorder. Pediatric Neurology, 15, 217–223.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Brugha, T., McManus, S., Bankart, J., Scott, F., Purdon, S., Smith, J., et al. (2011). Epidemiology of autism spectrum disorders in adults in the community in England. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68, 459–466.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Christensen, D., Baio, J., Van Naarden Braun, K., Bilder, D., Charles, J., Constantino, J., et al (2016). Prevalence and characteristics of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years—Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 sites, United States, 2012. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.ss6503a1.Google Scholar
  4. Croen, L., Zerbo, O., Qian, Y., Massolo, M., Rich, S., Sidney, S., & Kripke, C. (2015). The health status of adults on the autism spectrum. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice, 19, 814–823.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Esbensen, A., Seltzer, M., Lam, K., & Bodfish, J. (2009). Age-related differences in restricted repetitive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 57–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Farley, M., McMahon, W., Fombonne, E., Jenson, W., Miller, J., Gardner, M., et al. (2009). Twenty-year outcome for individuals with autism and average or near-average cognitive abilities. Autism Research, 2, 109–118.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Fortuna, R., Robinson, L., Smith, T., Meccarello, J., Bullen, B., Nobis, K., & Davidson, P. (2016). Health conditions and functional status in adults with autism: A cross-sectional evaluation. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 31, 77–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Ganz, M. (2007). The lifetime distribution of the incremental societal costs of autism. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 4, 353–359.Google Scholar
  9. Happe, F., & Charlton, R. (2012). Aging in autism spectrum disorders: A mini-review. Gerontology, 58, 70–78.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Happe, F., Mansour, H., Barrett, P., Brown, T., Abbott, P., & Charlton, R. (2016). Demographic and cognitive profile of individuals seeking a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in adulthood. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46, 3469–3480.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Howlin, P., Goode, S., Hutton, J., & Rutter, M. (2004). Adult outcome for children with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 212–229.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nervous Child, 2, 217–250.Google Scholar
  13. Kanner, L., Rodriguez, A., & Ashenden, B. (1972). How far can autistic children go in matters of social adaptation? Journal of Autism and Child Schizophrenia, 2, 9–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kats, D., Payne, L., Parlier, M., & Piven, J. (2013). Prevalence of selected clinical problems in older adults with autism and intellectual disability. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 5, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Keyes, K., Susser, E., Cheslack-Postava, K., Fountain, C., Liu, K., & Bearman, P. (2012). Cohort effects explain the increase in autism diagnosis among children born from 1992 to 2003 in California. International Journal of Epidemiology, 41, 495–503.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Kohane, I., McCurry, A., Weber, G., MacFadden, D., Rappaport, L., Kunkel, L., et al. (2012). The co-morbidity burden of children and young adults with autism spectrum disorders. PLoS One, 7, e33224.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Lai, M., Lombardo, M., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2014). Autism. Lancet, 383, 896–910.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. McCarthy, J., Hemmings, C., Kravariti, E., Dworzynski, K., Holt, G., Bouras, N., & Tsakanikos, E. (2010). Challenging behavior and co-morbid psychopathology in adults with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 31, 362–366.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Mukaetova-Ladinska, E. B., Perry, E., Baron, M., & Povey, C. (2012). Ageing in people with autistic spectrum disorder. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 27, 109–118.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Ortman, J., Velkoff, V., & Hogan, H. (2014). Aging nation: The older population in the United States, population estimates and projections. Current Population Reports.Google Scholar
  21. Perkins, E. A., & Berkman, K. A. (2012). Into the unknown: Aging with autism spectrum disorders. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disorders, 117, 478–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Piven, J., & Rabins, P. (2011). Autism spectrum disorders in older adults: Toward defining a research agenda. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 59, 2151–2155.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Rutter, M., Greenfeld, D., & Lockyer, L. (1967). A five to fifteen year follow-up study of infantile psychosis: II. Social and behavioural outcome. British Journal of Psychiatry, 113, 1183–1199.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Totsika, V., Felce, D., Kerr, M., & Hastings, R. (2010). Behavior problems, psychiatric symptoms, and quality of life for older adults with intellectual disability with and without autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 1171–1178.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Tyler, C., Schramm, S., Karafa, M., Tang, A., & Jain, A. (2011). Chronic disease risks in young adults with autism spectrum disorder: Forewarned is forearmed. American Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disorders, 116, 371–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elizabeth A. Wise
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marcia D. Smith
    • 2
  • Peter V. Rabins
    • 1
  1. 1.The Johns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Community Services for Autistic Adults and ChildrenMontgomery VillageUSA

Personalised recommendations