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Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 47, Issue 3, pp 813–833 | Cite as

Test of Gross Motor Development-3 (TGMD-3) with the Use of Visual Supports for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Validity and Reliability

  • K. A. Allen
  • B. Bredero
  • T. Van Damme
  • D. A. Ulrich
  • J. SimonsEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

The validity and reliability of the Test of Gross Motor Development-3 (TGMD-3) were measured, taking into consideration the preference for visual learning of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The TGMD-3 was administered to 14 children with ASD (4–10 years) and 21 age-matched typically developing children under two conditions: TGMD-3 traditional protocol, and TGMD-3 visual support protocol. Excellent levels of internal consistency, test–retest, interrater and intrarater reliability were achieved for the TGMD-3 visual support protocol. TGMD-3 raw scores of children with ASD were significantly lower than typically developing peers, however, significantly improved using the TGMD-3 visual support protocol. This demonstrates that the TGMD-3 visual support protocol is a valid and reliable assessment of gross motor performance for children with ASD.

Keywords

Test of Gross Motor Development-3 Autism spectrum disorder Visual supports Validity Reliability Gross motor performance 

Notes

Author Contributions

All authors made a substantial contribution to the study. The study was designed by KA and JS. JS and DU supervised the study and KA collected the data. KA and JS conducted the statistical analyses. All authors contributed to the writing of the manuscript, and have read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

K. Allen, B. Bredero, T. Van Damme, D. Ulrich and Johan Simons declare they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. A. Allen
    • 1
  • B. Bredero
    • 1
  • T. Van Damme
    • 1
  • D. A. Ulrich
    • 2
  • J. Simons
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Kinesiology and Rehabilitation SciencesKU LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  2. 2.School of KinesiologyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

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