Overview and Preliminary Evidence for a Social Skills and Self-Care Curriculum for Adolescent Females with Autism: The Girls Night Out Model
- 2k Downloads
A majority of social skills research in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and interventions target school age males and no published studies target adolescent females with ASD or related disabilities. Females with ASD are at risk for internalizing symptoms, and experience greater challenges in socialization and communication as social demands become increasingly complex in adolescence. This paper provides a thorough description of a social skills and self-care program designed to address the specific needs of adolescent females with ASD. The approach is peer mediated and occurs within natural or community settings to facilitate generalization. Findings from program evaluation data collected across 4 years illustrate significant improvements in perceived social competence, self-perception, and quality of life and suggests the approach is feasible and social valid.
KeywordsAutism spectrum disorder Females with autism Intervention Social skills
We are grateful to Liesl Edwards, Ph.D. for her support in preparing this manuscript. This research was supported in part by grants from the Kansas Center for Autism Research and Training, and an Autism Speaks Family Services Grant. We also acknowledge Mallorey Marek for her assistance in preparing this manuscript.
This study was funded by in part by a Family Services grant from Autism Speaks; pilot grant from the Kansas Center for Autism Research and Training at the University of Kansas and a Trailblazer award from the University of Kansas Medical Center.
Author 1 conceptualized, designed and developed iterations of the GNO program, as well as program evaluations related to program implementation. Author 2 was trained in and coordinated elements of the GNO program as conceptualized by Author 1, and participated in data collection and analysis related to some elements of program evaluation, as well as construction of and revisions of manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Author A declares that she has no conflict of interest. Author B declares that she has no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
- Bandura, A. (1971). Social Learning Theory. New York, NY: General Learning Corporation.Google Scholar
- Barnhill, G. P., Cook, K., Tebbenkamp, K., & Myles, B. S. (2002). The effectiveness of social skills intervention targeting nonverbal communication for adolescents with Asperger syndrome and related pervasive developmental delays. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 17(2), 112–118. doi: 10.1177/10883576020170020601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ditterline, J., & Oakland, T. (2009). Relationships between adaptive behavior and impairment. Assessing Impairment, 31–48.Google Scholar
- Frankel, F. D., Gorospe, C. M., Chang, Y., & Sugar, C. A. (2010). Mothers’ reports of play dates and observation of school playground behavior of children having high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52(5), 571–579. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02318.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Gresham, F. M., Sugai, G., & Horner, R. H. (2001). Interpreting outcomes for social skills training for students with high-incidence disabilities. Exceptional Children, 67(3), 331–344.Google Scholar
- Hacker, K. (2013). Community-based participatory research. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
- Harter, S., Waters, P., & Whitesell, N.R. (1998). Relational self-worth: Differences in perceived worth as a person across interpersonal contexts among adolescents. Child Development, 69(3), 756–766. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/.
- Jamison, T.R., Daniels, D., Gilmore, M., & Downey, K. (2012). Factors that influence peer acceptance in adolescent girls with ASD. Poster presentation at the Association of University Centers on Disabilities (AUCD) Annual Meeting and Conference, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
- Jamison, T.R., MacKay, A., Redford, J., Taylor, K., & Mason, K. (2012). Promoting social competence in adolescent girls with ASD. Poster presentation at the International Meeting for Autism Research (IMFAR 2012).Google Scholar
- Jamison, T.R., Schuttler, J. O., & Pak, N. (2015). It’s not just a guy thing: Identifying socially valid interventions for adolescent females with ASD. Poster presented at the International Meeting for Autism Research (IMFAR) in Salt Lake City, Utah.Google Scholar
- Kamps, D., Royer, J., Dugan, E., Kravits, T., Gonzalez-Lopez, A., Garcia, J., … Garrison Kane, L. (2002). Peer training to facilitate social interaction for elementary students with autism and their peers. Exceptional Children, 68(2), 173–187. Retrieved from http://cec.metapress.com/content/62581p2512882676/.
- Kendall, P. C. (2006). Guiding theory for therapy with children and adolescents. In P.C. Kendall (Ed.), Child and adolescent therapy: Cognitive-behavioral procedure, 3rd Edn (pp. 3–30). New York, NY: Guildford Press.Google Scholar
- Laugeson, E. A., Frankel, F., Gantman, A., Dillon, A. R., & Mogil, C. (2011). Evidence-based social skills training for adolescents with autism spectrum disorders: The UCLA PEERS program. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(6), 1025–1036. doi: 10.1007/s10803-011-1339-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Law, M., Baptiste, S., Carswell, A., McColl, M. A., Polatajko, H., & Pollock, N. (2005). Canadian occupational performance measure 4th Edn. Ottawa: CAOT Publications.Google Scholar
- Lord, C., Schopler, E., & Revicki, D. (1982). Sex differences in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 12, 317–330.Google Scholar
- Ratto, A. B., Turner-Brown, L., Rupp, B. M., Mesibov, G. B., & Penn, D. L. (2010). Development of the contextual assessment of social skills (CASS): A role play measure of social skill for individuals with high-functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 48, 1277–1286.Google Scholar
- Schohl, K. A., Van Hecke, A. V., Carson, A. M., Dolan, B., Karst, J., & Stevens, S. (2013). A replication and extension of the PEERS intervention: Examining effects on social skills and social anxiety in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(7), 1–14. doi: 10.1007/s10803-013-1900-1.Google Scholar
- Schuttler, J., Jamison, T. R., & Edwards, L. (May 2014). Exploring the developmental social profile of females with autism. Poster presented at the International Meeting for Autism Research (IMFAR) in Atlanta, GA.Google Scholar
- Shapiro, E. S., Durnan, S. L., Post, E. E., & Levinson, T. S. (2002). Self-monitoring procedures for children and adolescents. In: M. R. Shinn, H. M. Walker & G. Stoner (Eds.), Interventions for academic and behavior problems II: Preventive and remedial approaches (pp. 433–454). Washington, D. C.: National Association of School Psychologists.Google Scholar
- Skinner, B. F. (1988). Methods and theories in the experimental analysis of behavior. In: A. Charles & S. Harnad. (Eds.), The selection of behavior: The operant behaviorism of B.F. Skinner: Comments and consequences (pp. 77–149). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Steinberg, L. (2002). Adolescence (6th Ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
- Thorndike, E. L. (1913). The psychology of learning. New York: Teachers College, Colunbia University.Google Scholar
- Van Hecke, A. V., Stevens, S., Carson, A. M., Karst, J. S., Dolan, B., Schohl, K., … Brockman, S., et al. (2013). Measuring the plasticity of social approach: A randomized controlled trial of the effects of the PEERS intervention on EEG asymmetry in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. doi: 10.1007/s10803-013-1883-y.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Watkins, E. E., Zimmermann, Z. J., & Poling, A. (2014). The gender of participants in published research involving people with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 8(2). doi: 10.1016/j.rasd.2013.10.010.
- White, S.W., Koenig, K., & Scahill, L. (2010). Group social skills instruction for adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilties, 25. doi: 10.1177/1088357610380595.