Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 46, Issue 9, pp 3106–3114 | Cite as

Mothers of Children with Autism have Different Rates of Cancer According to the Presence of Intellectual Disability in Their Child

  • Jennifer C. Fairthorne
  • Nicholas H. de Klerk
  • Helen M. Leonard
  • Andrew J. O. Whitehouse
Original Paper

Abstract

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) are neurodevelopmental disorders with strong genetic components. Increasingly, research attention has focused on whether genetic factors conveying susceptibility for these conditions, also influence the risk of other health conditions, such as cancer. We examined the occurrence of hospital admissions and treatment/services for cancer in mothers of children with ASD with or without ID compared with other mothers. After linking Western Australian administrative health databases, we used Cox regression to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) of any hospitalisations and treatment/services for cancer in these groups of mothers. Mothers of children with ASD without ID had greater risk of admissions for cancer (HR 1.29 [95 % CI 1.1, 1.7]), and for treatment/services in particular (HR 1.41 [95 % CI 1.0, 2.0]), than mothers of children with no ASD/ID, while mothers of children with ASD with ID were no more likely to have a cancer-related hospital admission than other mothers. Mothers of children with autism without ID had increased risk of cancer, which may relate to common genetic pathways.

Keywords

Autism Intellectual disability Cancer Parents Genetics 

Supplementary material

10803_2016_2847_MOESM1_ESM.docx (14 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 14 kb)

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM 5. Arlington, VA: Bookpoint US.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2009). Information paper: An introduction to socio-economic indexes for areas (SEIFA). Available from: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/2039.0.
  3. Australian Institute for Health and Welfare. (2015). Coded clinical data 2015. Available from: http://www.aihw.gov.au/hospitals-data/national-hospital-morbidity-data/coded-clinical-data/.
  4. Blatt, J., Deal, A., & Mesibov, G. (2010). Autism in children and adolescents with cancer. Pediatric Blood and Cancer, 54(1), 144–147.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Chiang, H.-L., Liu, C.-J., Hu, Y.-W., Chen, S.-C., Hu, L.-Y., Shen, C.-C., et al. (2015). Risk of cancer in children, adolescents, and young adults with autistic disorder. Journal of Pediatrics, 166(2), 418–423.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Chida, Y., Hamer, M., Wardle, J., & Steptoe, A. (2008). Do stress-related psychosocial factors contribute to cancer incidence and survival? Nature Clinical Practice Oncology, 5(8), 466–475.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Christensen, D., Davis, G., Draper, G., Mitrou, F., McKeown, S., Lawrence, D., et al. (2014). Evidence for the use of an algorithm in resolving inconsistent and missing Indigenous status in administrative data collections. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 49(4), 423.Google Scholar
  8. Condon, J., Zhang, X., Baade, P., Griffiths, K., Cunningham, J., Roder, D., et al. (2014). Cancer survival for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: a national study of survival rates and excess mortality. Population Health Metrics, 12(1), 1.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Crespi, B. (2011). Autism and cancer risk. Autism Research, 4(4), 302–310.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Department of Health of Western Australia. (2011). What we collect and manage 2011, 12 May 2011. Available from: http://www.health.wa.gov.au/healthdata/statewide/index.cfm.
  11. Fairthorne, J., de Klerk, N., & Leonard, H. (2016a). Brief report: burden of care in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder or intellectual disability. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46(3), 1103–1109.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Fairthorne, J., Jacoby, P., Bourke, J., de Klerk, N., & Leonard, H. (2016b). Onset of maternal psychiatric disorders after the birth of a child with autism spectrum disorder: A retrospective cohort study. Autism, 20(1), 37–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Feero, W. G., Guttmacher, A., Mefford, H., Batshaw, M., & Hoffman, E. (2012). Genomics, intellectual disability, and autism. New England Journal of Medicine, 366(8), 733–743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Greenlee, R. T., Murray, T., Bolden, S., & Wingo, P. A. (2000). Cancer statistics, 2000. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 50(1), 7–33.Google Scholar
  15. Holman, C., Bass, A., Rouse, I., & Hobbs, M. (1999). Population-based linkage of health records in Western Australia: development of a health services research linked database. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 23, 453–459.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Ingudomnukul, E., Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., & Knickmeyer, R. (2007). Elevated rates of testosterone-related disorders in women with autism spectrum conditions. Hormones and Behavior, 51(5), 597–604.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Institute for Digital Research and Education. (2014). Supplemental notes to applied survival analysis. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Statistical Consulting Group, 16 April 2016. Available from: http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/examples/asa/test_proportionality.htm.
  18. Klint, Å., Engholm, G., Storm, H., Tryggvadóttir, L., Gislum, M., Hakulinen, T., et al. (2010). Trends in survival of patients diagnosed with cancer of the digestive organs in the Nordic countries 1964–2003: Followed up to the end of 2006. Acta Oncologica, 49(5), 578–607.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Leonard, H., Glasson, E., Nassar, N., Whitehouse, A., Bebbington, A., Bourke, J., et al. (2011). Autism and intellectual disability are differentially related to sociodemographic background at birth. PLoS One, 6(3), e17875.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Levav, I., Lipshitz, I., Novikov, I., Pugachova, I., Kohn, R., Barchana, M., et al. (2007). Cancer risk among parents and siblings of patients with schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 190(2), 156–161.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Lucá, R., Averna, M., Zalfa, F., Vecchi, M., Bianchi, F., La Fata, G., et al. (2013). The Fragile X protein binds mRNAs involved in cancer progression and modulates metastasis formation. EMBO Molecular Medicine, 5(10), 1523–1536.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Schubbert, S., Shannon, K., & Bollag, G. (2007). Hyperactive Ras in developmental disorders and cancer. Nature Reviews Cancer, 7(4), 295–308.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Schwab, J. (2002). Multinomial logistic regression: basic relationships and complete problems. Austin: University of Texas.Google Scholar
  24. Sullivan, S., Hussain, R., Threlfall, T., & Bittles, A. (2004). The incidence of cancer in people with intellectual disabilities. Cancer Causes and Control, 15(10), 1021–1025.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results. (2014). ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM based on FY2014 ICD-9-CM codes New York: US Government. Available from: http://seer.cancer.gov/tools/conversion/2014/ICD9CM_to_ICD10CM_2014CF.pdf.
  26. Tan, M.-H., Mester, J., Ngeow, J., Rybicki, L., Orloff, M., & Eng, C. (2012). Lifetime cancer risks in individuals with germline PTEN mutations. Clinical Cancer Research, 18(2), 400–407.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Tatton-Brown, K., Seal, S., Ruark, E., Harmer, J., Ramsay, E., del Vecchio, Duarte S., et al. (2014). Mutations in the DNA methyltransferase gene DNMT3A cause an overgrowth syndrome with intellectual disability. Nature Genetics, 46(4), 385–388.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. van Loon, A., Burg, J., Goldbohm, R., & van den Brandt, P. (1995). Differences in cancer incidence and mortality among socio-economic groups. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 23(2), 110–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Varga, E., Pastore, M., Prior, T., Herman, G., & McBride, K. (2009). The prevalence of PTEN mutations in a clinical pediatric cohort with autism spectrum disorders, developmental delay, and macrocephaly. Genetics in Medicine, 11(2), 111–117.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. World Health Organisation. (2006). International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems, 10th Revision, Version for 2007. Available from: http://apps.who.int/classifications/apps/icd/icd10online/.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jennifer C. Fairthorne
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nicholas H. de Klerk
    • 1
  • Helen M. Leonard
    • 1
  • Andrew J. O. Whitehouse
    • 1
  1. 1.Telethon Kids InstituteUniversity of Western AustraliaPerthAustralia
  2. 2.Child and Family Research InstituteUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

Personalised recommendations