Learning with Technology: Video Modeling with Concrete–Representational–Abstract Sequencing for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a video modeling intervention with concrete–representational–abstract instructional sequence in teaching mathematics concepts to students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A multiple baseline across skills design of single-case experimental methodology was used to determine the effectiveness of the intervention on the acquisition and maintenance of addition, subtraction, and number comparison skills for four elementary school students with ASD. Findings supported the effectiveness of the intervention in improving skill acquisition and maintenance at a 3-week follow-up. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5 (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Baer, D. M., Wolf, M. M., & Risley, T. R. (1968). Some current dimensions of applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1, 91–97. doi:10.1901/jaba.1968.1-91.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  3. Banda, D. R., Hart, S. L., & Liu-Gitz, L. (2010). Impact of training peers and children with autism on social skills during center time activities in inclusive classrooms. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 4, 619–625. doi:10.1016/j.rasd.2009.12.005.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Bartholomew, A., Papay, C., McConnell, A., & Cease-Cook, J. (2015). Embedding secondary transition in the common core state standards. Teaching Exceptional Children, 47, 329–335. doi:10.1177/0040059915580034.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Bouck, E. C., Satsangi, R., Doughty, T. T., & Courtney, W. T. (2014). Virtual and concrete manipulatives: A comparison of approaches for solving mathematics problems for students with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44, 180–193. doi:10.1007/s10803-013-1863-2.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Braddock, D., Rizzolo, M. C., Thompson, M., & Bell, R. (2004). Emerging technologies and cognitive disability. Journal of Special Education Technology, 19(4), 49–56. Retrieved from http://www.tamcec.org/jset/.

  7. Bruner, J. S., & Kenney, H. J. (1965). Representation and mathematics learning. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 30, 50–59. doi:10.2307/1165708.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Cihak, D. F., & Foust, J. L. (2008). Comparing number lines and touch points to teach addition facts to students with autism. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 23, 131–137. doi:10.1177/1088357608318950.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Coyle, C., & Cole, P. (2004). A videotaped self-modelling and self-monitoring treatment program to decrease off-task behaviour in children with autism. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 29, 3–16. doi:10.1080/08927020410001662642.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Fletcher-Watson, S. (2014). A targeted review of computer-assisted learning for people with autism spectrum disorder: Toward a consistent methodology. Review of Research in Autism and Developmental Disorders, 1, 87–101. doi:10.1007/s40489-013-0003-4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Flores, M. M. (2009). Teaching subtracting with regrouping to students experiencing difficulty in mathematics. Preventing School Failure, 53, 145–152. doi:10.3200/PSFL.53.3.145-152.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Flores, M. M., Hinton, V. M., & Strozier, S. D. (2014a). Teaching subtraction and multiplication with regrouping using the concrete–representational–abstract sequence and strategic instruction model. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 29, 75–88. doi:10.1111/ldrp.12032.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Flores, M. M., Hinton, V. M., Strozier, S. D., & Terry, S. L. (2014a). Using the concrete- representational-abstract sequence and the strategic instruction model to teach computation to students with autism spectrum disorders and developmental disabilities. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 49, 547–554. Retrieved from http://daddcec.org/Publications/ETADDJournal.aspx.

  14. Harris, C. A., Miller, S. P., & Mercer, C. D. (1995). Teaching initial multiplication skills to students with disabilities in general education classrooms. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 10, 180–195. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/%28ISSN%291540-5826.

  15. Hughes, E. M., & Riccomini, P. J. (2011). Mathematics motivation and self-efficacy of middle school students. Focus on Middle School, 24, 1–6.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Hume, K., Loftin, R., & Lantz, J. (2009). Increasing independence in autism spectrum disorders: A review of three focused interventions. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 1329–1338. doi:10.1007/s10803-009-0751-2.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA). (2004). Public law 108–446. U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from www.copyright.gov/legislation/pl108-446.pdf.

  18. Kennedy, C. H. (2005). Single-case designs for educational research. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Kolkman, M. E., Kroesbergen, E. H., & Leseman, P. P. M. (2013). Early numerical development and the role of non-symbolic and symbolic symbols. Learning and Instruction, 25, 95–103. doi:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2012.12.001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Kratochwill, T., Hitchcock, J., Horner, R., Levin, J., Odom, S., Rindskopf, D., & Shadish, W. (2013). Single-case intervention research design standards. Remedial & Special Education, 34, 26–38. doi:10.1177/0741932512452794.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Mazurek, M. O., Shattuck, P. T., Wagner, M., & Cooper, B. P. (2012). Prevalence and correlates of screen-based media use among youths with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 1757–1767. doi:10.1007/s10803-011-1413-8.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  22. Mechling, L. C., & Ayres, K. M. (2012). A comparative study: Completion of fine motor office related tasks by high school students with autism using video models on large and small screen sizes. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 2364–2373. doi:10.1007/s10803-012-1484-1.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Minshew, N. J., Goldstein, G., Taylor, H. G., & Siegel, D. J. (1994). Academic achievement in high-functioning autistic individuals. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 16, 261–270. doi:10.1080/01688639408402637.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Morin, V. A., & Miller, S. P. (1998). Teaching multiplication to middle school students with mental retardation. Education and Treatment of Children, 21, 22–36. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/42899519.

  25. Murray, C. (2013). 6 reasons to invest in better STEM education. Ed Tech Magazine. pp. 1–4.

  26. National Mathematics Advisory Panel [NMAP]. (2008). Foundations for success: The final report of the national mathematics advisory panel. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Education.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Odom, S. L., Thompson, J. L., Hedges, S., Boyd, B. A., Dykstra, J. R., Duda, M. A., et al. (2014). Technology-aided interventions and instruction for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45, 3805–3819. doi:10.1007/s10803-014-2320-6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Ozonoff, S., Pennington, B. F., & Rogers, S. J. (1991). Executive function deficits in high- functioning autistic individuals: Relationship to theory of mind. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 32, 1081–1105. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.1991.tb00351.x.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Parker, R. I., Vannest, K. J., & Brown, L. (2009). The improvement rate difference for single-case research. Exceptional Children, 75, 135–150. doi:10.1177/001440290907500201.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Pennington, R. C. (2010). Computer-assisted instruction for teaching academic skills to students with autism spectrum disorders: A review of literature. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 25, 239–248. doi:10.1177/1088357610378291.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Petursdottir, A., & Carr, J. E. (2011). A review of recommendations for sequencing receptive and expressive language instruction. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44, 859–876. doi:10.1901/jaba.2011.44-859.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  32. Plavnick, J. B. (2013). Video modeling (VM) fact sheet. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina, Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute, The National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders.

  33. Rourke, B. P., & Strang, J. D. (1978). Neuropsychological significance of variations in patterns of academic performance: Motor, psychomotor, and tactile-perceptual abilities. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 3, 62–66. doi:10.1093/jpepsy/3.2.62.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Spencer, V. G., Evmenova, A. S., Boon, R. T., & Hayes-Harris, L. (2014). Review of research-based interventions for students with autism spectrum disorders in content area instruction: Implications and considerations for classroom practice. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 49, 331–353. Retrieved from http://daddcec.org/Publications/ETADDJournal.aspx.

  35. Stroizer, S., Hinton, V., Flores, M., & Terry, L. (2015). An investigation of the effects of CRA instruction and students with autism spectrum disorder. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 50, 223–236. Retrieved from http://daddcec.org/Publications/ETADDJournal.aspx.

  36. Taylor, J., & Seltzer, M. (2011). Employment and post-secondary educational activities for young adults with autism spectrum disorders during the transition to adulthood. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41, 566–574. doi:10.1007/s10803-010-1070-3.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  37. Weng, P., & Bouck, E. C. (2014). Using video prompting via iPads to teach price comparison to adolescents with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 8, 1405–1415. doi:10.1016/j.rasd.2014.06.014.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Williams, D. L., Goldstein, G., Kojkowski, N., & Minshew, N. J. (2008). Do individuals with high-functioning autism have the IQ profile associated with nonverbal learning disability? Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 2, 353–361. doi:10.1016/j.rasd.2007.08.005.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  39. Witzel, B. S. (2005). Using CRA to teach algebra to students with math difficulties in inclusive settings. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 3, 53–64. Retrieved from http://www.ldworldwide.org/research/learning-disabilities-a-contemporary-journal.

  40. Witzel, B. S., Mercer, C. D., & Miller, M. D. (2003). Teaching algebra to students with learning difficulties: An investigation of an explicit instruction model. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 18, 121–131. doi:10.1111/1540-5826.00068.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Woodcock, R. W., McGrew, K. S., & Mather, N. (2001; 2007). Woodcock Johnson III tests of achievement. Rolling Meadows, IL: Riverside Publishing.

  42. Yakubova, G., Hughes, E. M., & Hornberger, E. (2015). Video-based intervention in teaching fraction problem-solving to students with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45, 2865–2875. doi:10.1007/s10803-015-2449-y.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This project was supported by a grant from Faculty Development Fund at Duquesne University awarded to Gulnoza Yakubova and Elizabeth M. Hughes.

Author Contributions

GY conceived of the study, participated in its design, data analysis, coordinated and drafted the manuscript; EMH participated in the design and coordination and helped to draft the manuscript; MS participated in data collection and helped to draft the manuscript.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Gulnoza Yakubova.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Yakubova, G., Hughes, E.M. & Shinaberry, M. Learning with Technology: Video Modeling with Concrete–Representational–Abstract Sequencing for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord 46, 2349–2362 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-016-2768-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • Autism
  • Concrete–representational–abstract instructional sequence
  • Technology-based intervention
  • Mathematics