Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 46, Issue 3, pp 760–772 | Cite as

Long-Term Outcomes in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders in India

  • Dimpi Mhatre
  • Deepa Bapat
  • Vrajesh UdaniEmail author
Original Paper


We investigated long-term outcomes in children with diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders based on Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS score). Information about outcomes such as speech, friendships and activities of daily living (ADLs) was collected through telephone-based interviews. Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-2 and Vineland Social Maturity Scale were used to assess level of functioning at follow-up. Parents of 80 [67 males, mean age 12 (3) years] children participated in the interview, 23 attended follow-up assessment. Sixty-four (80 %) were verbal, 34 (42.5 %) had need-based speech, 20 (25 %) had friends and 37 (46 %) had achieved age-appropriate ADLs. Median total follow-up period was 10 years. Lower disease severity, parent participation and higher maternal education were associated with better outcomes.


Autism spectrum disorders Long-term outcomes Speech Social and adaptive functioning 



This study was funded by National Health & Education Society, P.D. Hinduja National Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Mumbai (Project No. 759-13-VPU). We are grateful to all families that participated in this study and thank them for their co-operation.

Author Contributions

DM participated in study design, collected, analyzed and interpreted data and drafted the manuscript. DB participated in study design, performed psychological tests and helped in drafting the manuscript. VU conceived the study, participated in its design and critically revised the manuscript. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PediatricsP.D. Hinduja National Hospital and Medical Research CentreMumbaiIndia

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