Applied Behavior Analysis is a Science and, Therefore, Progressive
- 6k Downloads
Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a science and, therefore, involves progressive approaches and outcomes. In this commentary we argue that the spirit and the method of science should be maintained in order to avoid reductionist procedures, stifled innovation, and rote, unresponsive protocols that become increasingly removed from meaningful progress for individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We describe this approach as progressive. In a progressive approach to ABA, the therapist employs a structured yet flexible process, which is contingent upon and responsive to child progress. We will describe progressive ABA, contrast it to reductionist ABA, and provide rationales for both the substance and intent of ABA as a progressive scientific method for improving conditions of social relevance for individuals with ASD.
KeywordsApplied behavior analysis Behavioral intervention Discrete trial teaching Functional analysis
Justin Leaf conceived of the commentary and participated in the writing of the manuscript. All other authors helped in the design of the commentary and in the writing of various sections.
- ABA Autism Training-Chapter 2-Reinforcement. (2015). Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=crFjZlWWZo0.
- Akmanoglu, N., & Batu, S. (2004). Teaching pointing to numerals to individuals with autism using simultaneous prompting. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 39, 326–336.Google Scholar
- Au, A. H. C., Mountjoy, T. J., Man, K. L. P., Leaf, J. B., Leaf, R. B., Taubman, M., et al. (2015). A programmatic description of an international private behaviorally orientated autism school. Education and Treatment of Children, 38, 121–144.Google Scholar
- Autism Treatment Center. (2015). Joining-autism treatment-ABA vs the son-rise program. Retrieved: http://www.autismtreatmentcenter.org/contents/other_sections/aba-vs-son-rise-program.php.
- Ayllon, T., & Azrin, N. (1965). The token economy: A motivational system for therapy and rehabilitation. New York, New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
- Azrin, N. H., & Foxx, R. M. (1971). A rapid method of toilet training the institutionalized retarded. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 4, 88–99.Google Scholar
- BACB Newsletter. (2013). BACB certificants now exceed 13,000 worldwide. Retrieved from http://www.bacb.com/newsletter/BACB_Newsletter_5-13.pdf.
- Baer, D. M., & Wolf, M. M. (1970). The entry into natural communities of reinforcement. In R. Ulrich, H. H. Sachnik, & J. Mabry (Eds.), Control of human behavior (pp. 319–324). Glenville, IL: Scott, Foresman.Google Scholar
- Carr, J. E., Howard, J. S., & Martin, N. T. (2015). An update on the behavior analyst certification board. In Panel discussion presented at the Association for Behavior Analysis International 41st annual convention. San Antonio, Texas.Google Scholar
- Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2007). Applied behavior analysis (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.Google Scholar
- Foxx, R. M., & Gregorich, D. M. (1980). Harry, behavioral treatment of self abuse. Analysis and intervention in developmental disabilities. Champaign, IL: Research Press Company, H.E.L.P Inc.Google Scholar
- Gernsbacher, M. A. (2003). Is one style of early behavioral intervention “scientifically proven?”. Journal of Developmental and Learning Disorders, 7, 19–25.Google Scholar
- Gernsbacher, M. A. (2006). The Science of autism: Beyond the myths and misconceptions. In Paper presented at the meeting of the national autism committee, Nashua, NH.Google Scholar
- Graves, T. B., Collins, B. C., Schuster, J. W., & Kleinert, H. (2005). Using video prompting to teach cooking skills to secondary students with moderate disabilities. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 40, 34–46.Google Scholar
- Green, G. (1996). Early behavioral intervention for autism: What does research tell us? In C. Maurice, G. Green, & S. C. Luce (Eds.), Behavioral intervention for young children with autism: A manual for parents and professionals. Pro-Ed: Austin, Texas.Google Scholar
- Kamps, D. M., Leondard, B. R., Vernon, S., Dugan, E. P., Delquardi, J., Gershon, B., et al. (1992). Teaching social skills to students with autism to increase peer interactions in an integrated first-grade classroom. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25, 281–288.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Knight, M. G., Ross, D. E., Taylor, R. L., & Ramasamy, R. (2003). Constant time delay and interspersal of known items to teach sight words to students with mental retardation and learning disabilities. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 38, 179–191.Google Scholar
- Leaf, R. B. (2015). The Lovaas model: Love it or hate it, but at least understand it! In Presented at evidence based autism spectrum disorder intervention CAS and autism partnership conference. Las Vegas, NV.Google Scholar
- Leaf, J. B., Leaf, R., Alacalay, A., Leaf, J. A., Ravid, D., Dale, S., et al. (2015). Utility of formal preference assessments for individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 50, 119–212.Google Scholar
- Leaf, J. B., Leaf, J. A., Alcalay, A., Kassardjian, A., Tsuji, K., Dale, S., et al. (in press). Comparison of most-to-least prompting to flexible prompt fading for children with autism spectrum disorder. Exceptionality. Google Scholar
- Leaf, R. B., & McEachin, J. J. (1999). A work in progress: Behavior management strategies and a curriculum for intensive behavioral treatment of autism. New York, NY: Different Roads to Learning.Google Scholar
- Leaf, R. B., McEachin, J. J., & Taubman, M. (2008). Sense and nonsense in the behavioral treatment of autism: It has to be said. New York, NY: Different Roads to Learning.Google Scholar
- Lovaas, O. I. (1981). Teaching developmentally disabled children: The Me book. Austin, TX: PRO-ED Books.Google Scholar
- Lovaas, O. I. (2002). Celebration of Donald M. Baer. In Paper presented at the Celebration of Donald M. Baer, Lawrence, Kansas.Google Scholar
- Lovaas, O. I., & Leaf, R. B. (1981). Teaching developmentally disabled children: The Me book video tapes. Baltimore: University Park Press.Google Scholar
- Phillips, E. L., Phillips, E. A., Fixsen, D. L., & Wolf, M. M. (1974). The teaching-family handbook (2nd ed.). Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.Google Scholar
- Rogers, S. J., Estes, A., Lord, C., Vismara, L., Winter, J., Fitzpatrick, A., et al. (2012). Effects of a brief Early Start Denver Model (ESDM)-based parent intervention on toddlers at risk for autism spectrum disorders: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 51, 1052–1065.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Smith, T. (1999). Outcome of early intervention for children with autism. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 6, 33–49.Google Scholar
- Smith, T., Groen, A. D., & Wynn, J. W. (2000). Randomized trials of intensive early intervention for children with pervasive developmental disorders. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 105, 269–285.Google Scholar
- Sundberg, M. L. (2008). Verbal behavioral milestones assessment and placement program: the VB-MAPP. Concord: AVB Press.Google Scholar
- Texas Statewide Leaders for Autism Training. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.txautism.net/target-texas-autism-resource-guide-for-effective-teaching.
- Whang, P. L., Fletcher, K. R., & Fawcett, S. B. (1982). Training counseling skills: An experimental analysis and social validation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 15, 325–334.Google Scholar
- Winner, M. G. (2007). Thinking about you thinking about me. San Jose, CA: Think Social Publishing INC.Google Scholar
- Wolery, M., Ault, J. M., & Doyle, P. (1992). Teaching students with moderate to severe disabilities. Use of response prompting strategies. New York: Longman.Google Scholar