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Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptoms Among Children Enrolled in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED)

Abstract

This study examined the phenotypic profiles of children aged 30–68 months in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED). Children classified as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), developmental delay (DD) with ASD symptoms, DD without ASD symptoms, and population comparison (POP) differed significantly from each other on cognitive, adaptive, behavioral, and social functioning and the presence of parent-reported conditions. Children with ASD and DD with ASD symptoms had mild to severe ASD risk on several measures compared to children with other DD and POP who had little ASD risk across measures. We conclude that children in SEED have varying degrees of ASD impairment and associated deficits. SEED thus provides a valuable sample to explore ASD phenotypes and inform risk factor analyses.

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Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Aimee Alexander for her assistance with data cleaning and the SEED principal investigators, co-principal investigators, project coordinators, project staff, and children and families who participated in this research. This publication was supported by six cooperative agreements from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Cooperative Agreement Number U10DD000180, Colorado Department of Public Health; Cooperative Agreement Number U10DD000181, Kaiser Foundation Research Institute (CA); Cooperative Agreement Number U10DD000182, University of Pennsylvania; Cooperative Agreement Number U10DD000183, Johns Hopkins University; Cooperative Agreement Number U10DD000184, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; and Cooperative Agreement Number U10DD000498, Michigan State University. The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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Correspondence to Lisa D. Wiggins.

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Wiggins, L.D., Levy, S.E., Daniels, J. et al. Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptoms Among Children Enrolled in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED). J Autism Dev Disord 45, 3183–3194 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-015-2476-8

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Keywords

  • Autism
  • Etiology
  • Symptoms
  • Phenotype
  • Study to Explore Early Development