Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 45, Issue 11, pp 3487–3495 | Cite as

Brief Report of Preliminary Outcomes of an Emotion Regulation Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

  • Kendra Thomson
  • Priscilla Burnham Riosa
  • Jonathan A. Weiss
S.I. : Emotion Regulation and Psychiatric Comorbidity in ASD

Abstract

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often present with comorbid psychopathology including problems with emotion regulation. The goal of the present research was to investigate the feasibility of a multicomponent manualized cognitive behavior therapy treatment program for improving emotion regulation in youth with ASD 8–12 years of age. Thirteen males and their parents participated in the intervention, reporting high satisfaction with the activities and program overall, and attending all sessions. Preliminary outcomes regarding emotion regulation and psychopathology, and feasibility of the intervention, are summarized and discussed.

Keywords

Emotion regulation Autism spectrum disorder Cognitive behavior therapy Intervention Individual therapy 

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychological Association. (2006). Evidence-based practice in psychology. American Psychologist, 61(4), 271–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Attwood, T. (2004a). James and the maths test. In Exploring feelings: Cognitive behaviour therapy to manage anxiety. Arlington, TX: Future Horizons Inc.Google Scholar
  4. Attwood, T. (2004b). Dylan is being teased. In Exploring feelings: Cognitive behaviour therapy to manage anger. Arlington, TX: Future Horizons Inc.Google Scholar
  5. Barnhill, G. P., Hagiwara, T., Myles, B. S., Simpson, R. L., Brick, M. L., & Griswold, D. E. (2000). Parent, teacher, and self-report of problem and adaptive behaviors in children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 25(2), 147–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beaumont, R. (2013). Secret agent society: Operation regulation manual. Milton, Australia: Social Skills Training Institute.Google Scholar
  7. Beaumont, R., & Sofronoff, K. (2008). A multi-component social skills intervention for children with Asperger syndrome: The Junior Detective Training Program. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49(7), 743–753.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Surveillance summaries. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/data.html.
  9. Cicchetti, D. V. (1994). Guidelines, criteria, and rules of thumb for evaluating normed and standardized assessment instruments in psychology. Psychological Assessment, 6(4), 284–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Constantino, J. N., & Gruber, C. P. (2012). Social responsiveness scale (2nd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  11. Ehrenreich-May, J., Queen, A. H., Bilek, E. L., Remmes, C. R., & Marciel, K. K. (2013). The unified protocols for the treatment of emotional disorders in children and adolescents. In J. Ehrenreich-May & B. C. Chu (Eds.), Transdiagnostic treatments for children and adolescents: Principles and practice (pp. 267–292). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  12. Ehrenreich-May, J., Storch, E. A., Queen, A. H., Hernandez Rodriguez, J., Ghilain, C. S., Alessandri, M., et al. (2014). An open trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 29(3), 145–155. doi:10.1177/1088357614533381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fujii, C., Renno, P., McLeod, B. D., Lin, C. E., Decker, K., Zielinski, K., & Wood, J. J. (2013). Intensive cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders in school-aged children with autism: A preliminary comparison with treatment-as-usual. School Mental Health, 5(1), 25–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Glaser, S. E., & Shaw, S. R. (2011). Emotion regulation and development in children with autism and 22q13 Deletion Syndrome: Evidence for group differences. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(2), 926–934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Guy, W. (1976). ECDEU assessment manual for psychopharmacology. US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, National Institute of Mental Health, Psychopharmacology Research Branch, Division of Extramural Research Programs.Google Scholar
  16. Jahromi, L. B., Bryce, C. I., & Swanson, J. (2013). The importance of self-regulation for the school and peer engagement of children with high-functioning autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7, 235–246. doi:10.1016/j.rasd.2012.08.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Leyfer, O. T., Folstein, S. E., Bacalman, S., Davis, N. O., Dinh, E., Morgan, J., & Lainhart, J. E. (2006). Comorbid psychiatric disorders in children with autism: Interview development and rates of disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(7), 849–861.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Lord, C., Risi, S., Lambrecht, L., Cook, E. H., Jr, Leventhal, B. L., DiLavore, P. C., et al. (2000). The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule—Generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30(3), 205–223.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Mahan, S., & Matson, J. L. (2011). Children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders compared to typically developing controls on the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC-2). Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(1), 119–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mazefsky, C. A., Herrington, J., Siegel, M., Scarpa, A., Maddox, B. B., Scahill, L., & White, S. W. (2013). The role of emotion regulation in autism spectrum disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 52(7), 679–688.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Mazefsky, C. A., Kao, J., & Oswald, D. P. (2011). Preliminary evidence suggesting caution in the use of psychiatric self-report measures with adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(1), 164–174.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Mazefsky, C. A., & White, S. W. (2014). Emotion regulation: Concepts and practice in autism spectrum disorder. Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America, 23(1), 15–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. McConachie, H., McLaughlin, E., Grahame, V., Taylor, H., Honey, E., Tavernor, L., et al. (2013). Group therapy for anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorder. Autism, 18, 723–732. doi:10.1177/1362361313488839.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Reaven, J., Blakeley-Smith, A., Culhane-Shelburne, K., & Hepburn, S. (2012). Group cognitive behavior therapy for children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders and anxiety: A randomized trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(4), 410–419. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02486.x.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (2006). BASC-2: Behavior Assessment System for Children (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.Google Scholar
  26. Rieffe, C., Camodeca, M., Pouw, L. B. C., Lange, A. M. C., & Stockmann, L. (2012). Don’t anger me! Bullying, victimization, and emotion dysregulation in young adolescents with ASD. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9(3), 351–370. doi:10.1080/17405629.2012.680302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rutter, M., Bailey, A., & Lord, C. (2003). Social Communication Questionnaire. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  28. Scarpa, A., & Reyes, N. M. (2011). Improving emotion regulation with CBT in young children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders: A pilot study. Behavioural and cognitive psychotherapy, 39(04), 495–500.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Shields, A., & Cicchetti, D. (1997). Emotion regulation among school-age children: The development and validation of a new criterion Q-sort scale. Developmental Psychology, 33(6), 906. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.33.6.906.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Shields, A., & Cicchetti, D. (2001). Parental maltreatment and emotion dysregulation as risk factors for bullying and victimization in middle childhood. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30(3), 349–363.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Silverman, W. K., & Albano, A. M. (1996). The anxiety disorders interview schedule for DSM-IV—Child and parent versions. San Antonio, TX: Graywind.Google Scholar
  32. Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Charman, T., Chandler, S., Loucas, T., & Baird, G. (2008). Psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders: Prevalence, comorbidity, and associated factors in a population-derived sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(8), 921–929.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Sofronoff, K., Attwood, T., & Hinton, S. (2005). A randomised controlled trial of a CBT intervention for anxiety in children with Asperger syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(11), 1152–1160.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Sofronoff, K., Beaumont, R., & Weiss, J. A. (2014). Treating transdiagnostic processes in ASD: Going beyond anxiety. Handbook of Autism and Anxiety (pp. 171–183). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.Google Scholar
  35. Storch, E. A., Arnold, E. B., Lewin, A. B., Nadeau, J. M., Jones, A. M., De Nadai, A. S., et al. (2013). The effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy versus treatment as usual for anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders: A randomized, controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 52(2), 132–142. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2012.11.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Tan, C. S. (2007). Test review: Behavior assessment system for children. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 32(2), 121–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Thompson, R. A., Lewis, M. D., & Calkins, S. D. (2008). Reassessing emotion regulation. Child Development Perspectives, 2, 124–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Totsika, V., Hastings, R. P., Emerson, E., Lancaster, G. A., & Berridge, D. M. (2011). A Population-based investigation of behavioral and emotional problems and maternal mental health: Associations with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52(1), 91–99.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Ung, D., Arnold, E. B., De Nadai, A. S., Lewin, A. B., Phares, V., Murphy, T. K., & Storch, E. A. (2014). Inter-rater reliability of the anxiety disorders interview schedule for DSM-IV in high-functioning youth with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 26(1), 53–65. doi:10.1007/s10882-013-9343-3.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Volker, M. A., Lopata, C., Smerbeck, A. M., Knoll, V. A., Thomeer, M. L., Toomey, J. A., & Rodgers, J. D. (2010). BASC-2 PRS profiles for students with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40(2), 188–199.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Wechsler, D. (2011). Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II). San Antonio, TX: NCS Pearson.Google Scholar
  42. Weiss, J. A., Thomson, K., & Chan, L. (2014). A systematic literature review of emotion regulation measurement in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Autism Research, 7(6), 629–648.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. White, S. W., Ollendick, T., Scahill, L., Oswald, D., & Albano, A. M. (2009). Preliminary efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral treatment program for anxious youth with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(12), 1652–1662.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Wood, J., Fujii, C., Renno, P., & Dyke, M. (2014). Impact of cognitive behavioral therapy on observed autism symptom severity during school recess: A preliminary randomized, controlled trial. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(9), 2264–2276. doi:10.1007/s10803-014-2097-7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Wood, J. J., & Gadow, K. D. (2010). Exploring the nature and function of anxiety in youth with autism spectrum disorders. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 17(4), 281–292.Google Scholar
  46. Zablotsky, B., Bradshaw, C. P., Anderson, C., & Law, P. A. (2013). The association between bullying and the psychological functioning of children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 34(1), 1–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Zeman, J. L., Cassano, M., Suveg, C., & Shipman, K. (2010). Initial validation of the Children’s worry management scale. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19(4), 381–392. doi:10.1007/s10826-009-9308-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zeman, J., Shipman, K., & Penza-Clyve, S. (2001). Development and initial validation of the Children’s Sadness Management Scale. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 25(3), 187–205. doi:10.1023/A:1010623226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kendra Thomson
    • 1
    • 2
  • Priscilla Burnham Riosa
    • 1
  • Jonathan A. Weiss
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyYork UniversityTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Centre for Applied Disability StudiesBrock UniversitySt. CatharinesCanada

Personalised recommendations