Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 45, Issue 6, pp 1689–1698 | Cite as

Maternal Smoking and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-analysis

  • Brittany N. Rosen
  • Brian K. Lee
  • Nora L. Lee
  • Yunwen Yang
  • Igor Burstyn
Original Paper


We conducted a meta-analysis of 15 studies on maternal prenatal smoking and ASD risk in offspring. Using a random-effects model, we found no evidence of an association (summary OR 1.02, 95 % CI 0.93–1.12). Stratifying by study design, birth year, type of healthcare system, and adjustment for socioeconomic status or psychiatric history did not alter the findings. There was evidence that ascertaining exposure at the time of birth produced a lower summary OR than when this information was gathered after birth. There was no evidence of publication bias. Non-differential exposure misclassification was shown to have the potential for negligible influence on the results. We found no evidence to support a measurable association between maternal prenatal smoking and ASD in offspring.


Autism Tobacco smoke Epidemiology Systematic review In-utero exposure Environmental risk Exposure misclassification 


Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical standard

The manuscript does not contain clinical studies or patient data.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brittany N. Rosen
    • 1
  • Brian K. Lee
    • 2
  • Nora L. Lee
    • 2
  • Yunwen Yang
    • 2
  • Igor Burstyn
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public HealthDrexel UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Epidemiology and BiostatisticsDrexel University School of Public HealthPhiladelphiaUSA

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