Advertisement

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 43, Issue 10, pp 2442–2449 | Cite as

Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents with ASD Without Mental Retardation

  • Marta CaamañoEmail author
  • Leticia Boada
  • Jessica Merchán-Naranjo
  • Carmen Moreno
  • Cloe Llorente
  • Dolores Moreno
  • Celso Arango
  • Mara Parellada
Original Paper

Abstract

This study analyzes subclinical psychopathology in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) without mental retardation with no comorbid disorder, assessed by an extensive general psychopathology interview. The K-SADS-PL was administered to a group of 25 patients with ASD (mean age = 12.80 ± 2.86 years) and 25 healthy controls (mean age 12.52 ± 2.86 years). Significant differences were found between patients with ASD and controls for the domains of: depressive disorder, anxiety separation disorder, agoraphobia and specific phobias, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In patients without a comorbid disorder, we found a profile of subclinical disturbances that suggest high risk for comorbid psychiatric conditions derived from the presence of subthreshold symptomatology.

Keywords

Asperger syndrome Psychopathology Comorbidity Adolescent Developmental disorders 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness. Instituto de Salud Carlos III, CIBERSAM. Madrid Regional Government (S2010/BMD-2422 AGES) and European Union Structural Funds, Fundación Alicia Koplowitz and ERA-NET NEURON (Network of European Funding for Neuroscience Research).

References

  1. Belinchón, M., Hernández, J., Sotillo, M. (2008). Personas con Síndrome de. Asperger: Funcionamiento, Detección y Necesidades. Madrid: Centro de psicología aplicada de la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (CPA-UAM).Google Scholar
  2. Ehlers, S., & Gillberg, C. (1993). The epidemiology of Asperger syndrome. A total population study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34(8), 1327–1350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Gadow, K. D., Devincent, C., & Schneider, J. (2008). Predictors of psychiatric symptoms in children with an autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(9), 1710–1720.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ghazziuddin, M., & Zafar, S. (2008). Psychiatric comorbidity of adults with autism spectrum disorders. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 5, 9–12.Google Scholar
  5. Gillberg, I. C., & Gillberg, C. (1989). Asperger syndrome–some epidemiological considerations: A research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 30(4), 631–638.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gjevik, E., Eldevik, S., Fjaeran-Granum, T., & Sponheim, E. (2011). Kiddie-SADS reveals high rates of DSM-IV disorders in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(6), 761–769.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Groden, J., Diller, A., Bausman, M., Velicer, W., Norman, G., & Cautela, J. (2001). The development of a stress survey schedule for persons with autism and other developmental disabilities. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31(2), 207–217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hofvander, B., Delorme, R., Chaste, P., Nyden, A., Wentz, E., Stahlberg, O., et al. (2009). Psychiatric and psychosocial problems in adults with normal-intelligence autism spectrum disorders. BMC Psychiatry, 9, 35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hurtig, T., Kuusikko, S., Mattila, M. L., Haapsamo, H., Ebeling, H., Jussila, K., et al. (2009). Multi-informant reports of psychiatric symptoms among high-functioning adolescents with Asperger syndrome or autism. Autism, 13(6), 583–598.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kanne, S. M., Abbacchi, A. M., & Constantino, J. N. (2009). Multi-informant ratings of psychiatric symptom severity in children with autism spectrum disorders: The importance of environmental context. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(6), 856–864.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kaufman, J., Birmaher, B., Brent, D., Rao, U., Flynn, C., Moreci, P., et al. (1997). Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and lifetime version (K-SADS-PL): Initial reliability and validity data. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(7), 980–988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kuusikko, S., Pollock-Wurman, R., Jussila, K., Carter, A. S., Mattila, M. L., Ebeling, H., et al. (2008). Social anxiety in high-functioning children and adolescents with Autism and Asperger syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(9), 1697–1709.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P. C., & Risi, S. (2002). Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  14. Mattila, M. L., Hurtig, T., Haapsamo, H., Jussila, K., Kuusikko-Gauffin, S., Kielinen, M., et al. (2010). Comorbid psychiatric disorders associated with Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism: A community-and clinic-based study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40(9), 1080–1093.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mazzone, L., Ruta, L., & Reale, L. (2012). Psychiatric comorbidities in Asperger syndrome and high functioning autism: Diagnostic challenges. Annals of general psychiatry, 11, 16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Merchán-Naranjo, J., Giráldez-Quiroga, M., Fraguas, D., Mayoral, M., Rappaport Arango, C., & Parellada, M. (2010). Dimensiones psicopatológicas en pacientes con Síndrome de Asperger y controles sanos. In M. Belinchón-Carmona (Ed.), Investigaciones sobre autismo en español: Problemas y perspectivas (pp. 213–217). Madrid: Mercedes. Madrid. CPA-UAM.Google Scholar
  17. Merchan-Naranjo, J., Mayoral, M., Rapado-Castro, M., Llorente, C., Boada, L., Arango, C., et al. (2011). Estimation of the Intelligence Quotient Using Wechsler Intelligence Scales in Children and Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome. Journal of Autism Develeopmental Disorders, 42(1), 116–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Meyer, J. A., Mundy, P. C., Van Hecke, A. V., & Durocher, J. S. (2006). Social attribution processes and comorbid psychiatric symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome. Autism, 10(4), 383–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Parellada, M., Boada, L., Moreno, C., Llorente, C., Romo, J., Muela, C., et al. (2011). Specialty care programme for autism spectrum disorders in an urban population: A case-management model for health care delivery in an ASD population. European Psychiatry, 28(2), 102–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Parellada, M., Moreno, C., Mac-Dowell, K., Leza, J. C., Giraldez, M., Bailon, C., et al. (2012). Plasma antioxidant capacity is reduced in Asperger syndrome. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 46(3), 394–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Paula-Perez, I., & Martos-Perez, J. (2009). Asperger’s syndrome and high-functioning autism: Comorbidity with anxiety and mood disorders. Revista de Neurologia, 48(Suppl 2), S31–S34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Russell, A. J., Mataix-Cols, D., Anson, M., & Murphy, D. G. (2005). Obsessions and compulsions in Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism. British Journal of Psychiatry, 186, 525–528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ruta, L., Mugno, D., D’Arrigo, V. G., Vitiello, B., & Mazzone, L. (2010). Obsessive-compulsive traits in children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 19(1), 17–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sanchez-Valle, E., Posada, M., Villaverde-Hueso, A., Tourino, E., Ferrari-Arroyo, M. J., Boada, L., et al. (2008). Estimating the burden of disease for autism spectrum disorders in Spain in 2003. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(2), 288–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Tantam, D., & Girgis, S. (2009). Recognition and treatment of Asperger syndrome in the community. British Medical Bulletin, 89, 41–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marta Caamaño
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Leticia Boada
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jessica Merchán-Naranjo
    • 1
    • 2
  • Carmen Moreno
    • 1
    • 2
  • Cloe Llorente
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dolores Moreno
    • 1
    • 2
  • Celso Arango
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Mara Parellada
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio MarañónMadridSpain
  2. 2.Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, CIBERSAM, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañon, IISGM, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio MarañónMadridSpain
  3. 3.Facultad de Medicina, Universidad ComplutenseMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations