Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 44, Issue 10, pp 2400–2412 | Cite as

Standardizing ADOS Domain Scores: Separating Severity of Social Affect and Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors

Original Paper

Abstract

Standardized Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) scores provide a measure of autism severity that is less influenced by child characteristics than raw totals (Gotham et al. in Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(5), 693–705 2009). However, these scores combine symptoms from the Social Affect (SA) and Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors (RRB) domains. Separate calibrations of each domain would provide a clearer picture of ASD dimensions. The current study separately calibrated raw totals from the ADOS SA and RRB domains. Standardized domain scores were less influenced by child characteristics than raw domain totals, thereby increasing their utility as indicators of Social-Communication and Repetitive Behavior severity. Calibrated domain scores should facilitate efforts to examine trajectories of ASD symptoms and links between neurobiological and behavioral dimensions.

Keywords

Autism spectrum disorders Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule Severity Social Affect Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors 

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Fourth Edition, Text Revision: DSM-IV-TR. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (2011). DSM-5 Development: A 09 Autism Spectrum Disorder. http://www.dsm5.org/ProposedRevisions/Pages/proposedrevision.aspx?rid=94. Accessed 04 March 2012.
  3. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  4. Constantino, J. N., & Gruber, C. (2005). The Social Responsiveness Scale. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  5. Constantino, J. N., Hudziak, J. J., & Todd, R. D. (2003). Deficits in reciprocal social behavior in male twins: evidence for a genetically independent domain of psychopathology. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42(4), 458–467. doi:10.1097/01.CHI.0000046811.95464.21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Di Martino, A., Kelly, C., Grzadzinski, R., Zuo, X.-N., Mennes, M., Mairena, M. A., et al. (2011). Aberrant striatal functional connectivity in children with autism. Biological Psychiatry, 69(9), 847–856. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.10.029.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Dichter, G. S., Richey, J. A., Rittenberg, A. M., Sabatino, A., & Bodfish, J. W. (2011). Reward circuitry function in autism during face anticipation and outcomes. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. doi:10.1007/s10803-011-1221-1.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. DiLavore, P., Lord, C., & Rutter, M. (1995). The Pre-Linguistic Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 25(4), 355–379. doi:10.1007/BF02179373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Elliott, C. D. (1990). Differential Ability Scales. San Antonio: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  10. Frazier, T. W., Youngstrom, E. A., Speer, L., Embacher, R., Law, P., Constantino, J., et al. (2012). Validation of proposed DSM-5 criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 51(1), 28–40. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2011.09.021.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Gotham, K., Risi, S., Pickles, A., & Lord, C. (2007). The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: Revised algorithms for improved diagnostic validity. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(4), 613–627. doi:10.1007/s10803-006-0280-1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gotham, K., Pickles, A., & Lord, C. (2009). Standardizing ADOS scores for a measure of severity in autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(5), 693–705. doi:10.1007/s10803-008-0674-3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Huerta, M., Bishop, S. L., Duncan, A., Hus, V., & Lord, C. (in press). How many will we miss? Application of DSM 5 criteria to 3 samples of children with DSM-IV diagnoses of ASD. American Journal of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  14. Hus, V., & Lord, C. (in press). Effects of child characteristics on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised: Implications for use of scores as a measure of ASD severity. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. doi:10.1007/s10803-012-1576-y.
  15. Hus, V., Bishop, S., Gotham, K., Huerta, M., Pickles, A., & Lord, C. (in press). Factors influencing scores on the Social Responsiveness Scale. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Google Scholar
  16. Lord, C., Petkova, E., Hus, V., Gan, W., Lu, F., Martin, D. M., et al. (2011). A multisite study of the clinical diagnosis of different autism spectrum disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.148.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Lord, C., Risi, S., DiLavore, P. S., Shulman, C., Thurm, A., & Pickles, A. (2006). Autism from 2 to 9 years of age. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 694–701. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.63.6.694.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P. C., Risi, S., Gotham, K., & Bishop, S. (2012). Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd Edition (ADOS-2). Torrance: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  19. Luyster, R., Gotham, K., Guthrie, W., Coffing, M., Petrak, R., Pierce, K., et al. (2009). The autism diagnostic observation schedule—toddler module: a new module of a standardized diagnostic measure for autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(9), 1305–1320. doi:10.1007/s10803-009-0746-z.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Mandy, W. P. L., Charman, T., & Skuse, D. H. (2012). Testing the construct validity of proposed criteria for DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 51(1), 41–50. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2011.10.013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mattila, M.-L., Kielinen, M., Linna, S.-L., Jussila, K., Ebeling, H., Bloigu, R., Joseph, R. M., et al. (2011). Autism Spectrum Disorders according to “DSM-IV-TR” and comparison with “DSM-5” draft criteria: An epidemiological study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 50(6), 583–592.e11.Google Scholar
  22. McCarthy, P. L., Cicchetti, D. V., Sznajderman, S. D., Forsyth, B. C., Baron, M. A., Fink, H. D., et al. (1991). Demographic, clinical, and psychosocial predictors of the reliability of mothers’ clinical judgments. Pediatrics, 88(5), 1041–1046.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. McPartland, J. C., Reichow, B., & Volkmar, F. R. (2012). Sensitivity and specificity of proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 51(4), 368–383. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2012.01.007.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Mullen, E. (1995). The Mullen Scales of Early Learning. Circle Pines: American Guidance Service, Inc.Google Scholar
  25. Rutter, M., Le Couteur, A., & Lord, C. (2003). Autism diagnostic interview-revised. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  26. State, M. W., & Levitt, P. (2011). The conundrums of understanding genetic risks for autism spectrum disorders. Nature Neuroscience, 14(12), 1499–1506. doi:10.1038/nn.2924.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. World Health Organization. (1992). The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioral disorder: Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  28. World Health Organization. (2012). International Classification of Diseases 11th Revision: Beta draft. http://apps.who.int/classifications/icd11/browse/f/en. Accessed 22 September 2012.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Vanderbilt Kennedy CenterVanderbilt UniversityNashvilleUSA
  3. 3.Center for Autism and the Developing BrainWeill Cornell Medical CollegeWhite PlainsUSA

Personalised recommendations