A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate whether caregiver’s variations in socioeconomic status (SES) has direct bearing on challenges of nurturing children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Oman. A cadre of caregivers (n = 150) from two types of SES (low-income and middle-high income) were compared based on four domains: (1) accessing and perception of remedial services, (2) utilization and perception of psychiatric services, (3) constraints for being a caregiver of children with ASD and (4) financial expenses of taking care of children with ASD. There is little indication that any particular SES fare well on these domains. Factors to mitigate such predicaments are therefore imperative in order to improve quality of life for caregivers among children with ASD.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Al-Adawi, S. (2006). Adolescence in Oman. In J. J. Arnett (Ed.), International encyclopedia of adolescence: A historical and cultural survey of young people around the world. New York: Routledge.
Al-Adawi, S., Dorvlo, A. S. S., Al-Ismaily, S. S., Al-Ghafry, D. A., Al-Noobi, B. Z., Al-Salmi, A., et al. (2002). Perception of and attitude towards mental illness in Oman. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 48, 305–317.
Al-Farsi, Y. M., Al-Sharbati, M. M., Al-Farsi, O. A., Al-Shafaee, M. S., Brooks, D. R., & Waly, M. I. (2011a). Brief report: Prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders in the Sultanate of Oman. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41, 821–825.
Al-Farsi, Y. M., Al-Sharbati, M. M., Waly, M. I., Al-Farsi, O. A., Al Shafaee, M. A., & Deth, R. C. (2011b). Malnutrition among preschool-aged autistic children in Oman. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5, 1549–1552.
Al-Farsi, Y. M., Al-Sharbati, M. M., Waly, M. I., Al-Farsi, O. A., Al-Shafaee, M. A., Al-Khaduri, M. M., et al. (2012). Effect of suboptimal breastfeeding on occurrence of autism: A case control study. Nutrition, 28, e27–e32. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2012.01.007.
Al-Lamki, Z., & Ohlin, C. (1992). A Community-based study of childhood handicap in Oman. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, 38, 314–316.
Al-Sharbati, M. (2012). The emergence of behavioral disorders in children and adolescents. International J Nutrition, pharmacology, neurological diseases, 2, 1–2.
Al-Sharbati, M., Al-Hussaini, A., & Antony, S. (2003). Profile of child and adolescent psychiatry in Oman. Saudi Medical Journal, 24, 391–395.
Al-Sinawi, H., Al-Alawi, M., Al-Lawati, R., Al-Harrasi, A., Al-Shafaee, M., & Al-Adawi, S. (2012). Emerging burden of frail young and elderly persons in Oman: For whom the bell tolls? Sultan Qaboos University Medical Sciences Journal, 12, 169–176.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV-TR. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.
Barrett, B., Byford, S., Sharac, J., Hudry, K., Leadbitter, K., Temple, K., et al. (2011). Service and wider societal costs of very young children with autism in the UK. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 797–804.
Bebbington, A., & Beecham, J. (2007). Social services support and expenditure for children with autism. Autism, 11, 43–61.
Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: The Guilford Press.
Beecham, J., & Knapp, M. (2001). Costing Psychiatric Interventions. In G. Thornicroft (Ed.), Measuring mental health needs. London: Gaskell.
Burney, I. A. (2009). The trend to seek a second opinion abroad amongst cancer Patients in Oman: Challenges and opportunities. Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, 9, 260–263.
Central Intelligence Agency. (2011). The World Factbook: Oman. Retrieved August 1, 2011 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mu.html.
Chakrabarti, S. (2009). Early identification of autism. Indian Pediatrics, 46, 412–414.
Chesnais, J. (1993). The demographic transition: stages, patterns, and economic implications: A longitudinal study of sixty-seven countries covering the period 1720–1984. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cidav, Z., Marcus, S. C., & Mandell, D. S. (2012). Implications of childhood autism for parental employment and earnings. Pediatrics, 129, 617–623.
Croen, L., Najjar, D. V., Ray, T., Lotspeich, L., & Bernal, P. (2006). A comparison of health care utilization and costs of children with and without autism spectrum disorders in a large group: Model health plan. Pediatrics, 118, e1203–e1211.
Curtis, L., & Netten, A. (2005). Unit costs of health and social care 2005. Canterbury: Personal Social Services Research Unit.
Eapen, V., Mabrouk, A. A., Zoubeidi, T., & Yunis, F. (2007). Prevalence of pervasive developmental disorders in preschool children in the UAE. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, 53, 202–205.
Gallagher, S., Phillips, A. C., & Carroll, D. (2010). Parental stress is associated with poor sleep quality in parents caring for children with developmental disabilities. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 35, 728–737.
Gallagher, S., Phillips, A. C., Oliver, C., & Carroll, D. (2008). Predictors of psychological morbidity in parents of children with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 33, 1129–1136.
Jacobson, J. W., & Mulick, J. A. (2000). System and cost research issues in treatments for people with autistic disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30, 585–593.
Järbrink, K. (2007). The economic consequences of autistic spectrum disorder among children in a Swedish municipality. Autism, 11, 453–463.
Järbrink, K., Fombonne, E., & Knapp, M. (2003). Measuring the parental, service and cost impacts of children with autistic spectrum disorder: A pilot study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33, 395–402.
Järbrink, K., & Knapp, M. (2001). The economic impact of autism in Britain. Autism, 5, 7–22.
Liptak, G., Stuart, T., & Auinger, P. (2006). Health care utilisation and expenditures for children with autism: Data from US national samples. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 871–879.
Mansell, W., & Morris, K. (2004). A survey of parents’ reactions to the diagnosis of an autistic spectrum disorder by a local service: Access to information and use of services. Autism, 8, 387–407.
Ministry of National Economy. (2003). Human development report in the Sultanate of Oman 2003. Ministry of National Economy, Oman. Available at http://www.moneoman.gov.om/book/hdr03/Final_en/en/ind_1.pdf. Accessed April 3, 2012.
Ministry of National Economy. (2011). Oman Census, 2010. Available at http://www.mone.gov.om/documents/Census_2010.pdf. Accessed April 10, 2012.
Mulvihill, B., Wingate, M., Kirby, R. S., Pettygrove, S., Cunniff, C., Meaney, F. J., et al. (2009). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders: Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, United States, 2006. MMWR Surveillance Summaries, 18, 1–20.
Nicholas, J. S., Carpenter, L. A., King, L. B., Jenner, W., Wahlquist, A., Logan, S., et al. (2012). Completeness of case ascertainment for surveillance of autism spectrum disorders using the autism developmental disabilities monitoring network methodology. Disability and Health Journal, 5, 85–89.
Ohira, Y., Ikusaka, M., Noda, K., Tsukamoto, T., Takada, T., Miyahara, M., et al. (2012). Consultation behaviour of doctor-shopping patients and factors that reduce shopping. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 18, 433–440.
Papavasiliou, A. S., Nikaina, I., Rizou, J., & Alexandrou, S. (2011). The effect of a psycho-educational program on CARS scores and short sensory profile in autistic children. European Journal of Paediatric Neurology, 15, 338–344.
Peacock, G., Amendah, D., Ouyang, L., & Grosse, S. D. (2012). Autism spectrum disorders and health care expenditures: The effects of co-occurring conditions. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 33, 2–8.
Profanter, A. (2009). Facing the challenges of children and youth with special abilities and needs on the fringes of Omani society. Children and Youth Services Review, 31, 8–15.
Read, N., & Schofield, A. (2010). Autism: Are mental health services failing children and parents? Journal of Family Health Care, 20, 120–124.
Regional Bureau for Arab States. United Nations Development Programme. (2009). Arab human development report: Challenges to human security in the Arab Countries. Available at http://www.arab-hdr.org/contents/index.aspx?rid=5. Accessed Feb 2, 2012.
Seif Eldin, A., Habib, D., Noufal, A., Farrag, S., Bazaid, K., Al-Sharbati, M., et al. (2008). Use of M-CHAT for a multinational screening of young children with autism in the Arab countries. International Review of Psychiatry, 20, 281–289.
Wang, J., Zhou, X., Xia, W., Sun, C. H., Wu, L. J., Wang, J. L., et al. (2012). Parent-reported health care expenditures associated with autism spectrum disorders in Heilongjiang province. China. BMC Health Services Research, 10(12), 7.
Wikan, U. (1984). Shame and honour: A contestable pair. Man, 19, 635–652.
This project was supported by funds from Sultan Qaboos University, His Majesty Strategic Research Grant Fund, grant number SR/MED/FMCO/11/01.
Electronic supplementary material
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Al-Farsi, Y.M., Waly, M.I., Al-Sharbati, M.M. et al. Variation in Socio-Economic Burden for Caring of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Oman: Caregiver Perspectives. J Autism Dev Disord 43, 1214–1221 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-012-1667-9
- Socio-economic burden