Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 43, Issue 5, pp 1151–1156

Sex Differences in the Timing of Identification Among Children and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

  • Sander Begeer
  • David Mandell
  • Bernadette Wijnker-Holmes
  • Stance Venderbosch
  • Dorien Rem
  • Fred Stekelenburg
  • Hans M. Koot
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10803-012-1656-z

Cite this article as:
Begeer, S., Mandell, D., Wijnker-Holmes, B. et al. J Autism Dev Disord (2013) 43: 1151. doi:10.1007/s10803-012-1656-z

Abstract

To examine differences by sex in the timing of identification of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), survey data were collected in the Netherlands from 2,275 males and females with autistic disorder, Asperger’s syndrome and PDD-NOS. Among participants <18 years of age, females with Asperger’s syndrome were identified later than males. Among participants ≥18 years of age, females with autistic disorder were identified later than males. In more recent years, girls with Asperger’s syndrome are diagnosed later than boys, confirming earlier findings. In adults, the delayed timing of diagnosis in females with autistic disorder may be related to changing practices in diagnosis over time. Strategies for changing clinician behaviour to improve recognition of ASD in females are needed.

Keywords

Autism Identification Sex Asperger’s syndrome Diagnosis 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sander Begeer
    • 1
    • 4
  • David Mandell
    • 2
  • Bernadette Wijnker-Holmes
    • 3
  • Stance Venderbosch
    • 3
  • Dorien Rem
    • 3
    • 5
  • Fred Stekelenburg
    • 3
  • Hans M. Koot
    • 4
  1. 1.School of PsychologyUniversity of SydneySydneyAustralia
  2. 2.University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Nederlandse Vereniging voor AutismeBilthovenThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Department of Developmental PsychologyVU University AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  5. 5.Utrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands

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