Is Maternal Influenza or Fever During Pregnancy Associated with Autism or Developmental Delays? Results from the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment) Study
- 3.1k Downloads
We analyzed data from case groups of 538 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 163 with developmental delays (DD), and from 421 typically developing controls to assess associations with maternal influenza or fever during pregnancy. Exposure information was obtained by telephone interviews, and outcomes were clinically confirmed. Though neither ASD nor DD was associated with influenza, both were associated with maternal fever during pregnancy: OR’s (odds ratios) were 2.12 (95 % CI 1.17, 3.84) and 2.50 (95 % CI 1.20, 5.20) respectively. However, the fever-associated ASD risk was attenuated among mothers who reported taking antipyretic medications (OR = 1.30, 95 % CI 0.59, 2.84), but remained elevated for those who did not (OR = 2.55, 95 % CI 1.30, 4.99).
KeywordsMaternal influenza Fever Autism Anti-fever medication
The authors would like to thank Paula Krakowiak and Lora Delwiche both from the Department of Public Health Sciences at the University of California Davis for their great data management skills, Dr. Daniel Tancredi, PhD from the Department of Pediatrics at the University of California Davis for his statistical analysis advice.
The present work was supported by grants R01-ES015359 and P01-ES11269 from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; # R-829388 & R-833292 from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s STAR program; and the UC Davis MIND Institute.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Abdallah, M. W., Larsen, N., Grove, J., Norgaard-Pedersen, B., Thorsen, P., Mortensen, E. L., et al. (2011). Amniotic fluid inflammatory cytokines: Potential markers of immunologic dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders. World Journal of Biology Psychiatry. doi: 10.3109/15622975.2011.639803
- Abdallah, M. W., Larsen, N., Grove, J., Norgaard-Pedersen, B., Thorsen, P., Mortensen, E. L., et al. (2012). Amniotic fluid chemokines and autism spectrum disorders: An exploratory study utilizing a Danish Historic Birth Cohort. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 26(1), 170–176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- CDC. http://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/season/flu-season.htm. From CDC.
- Lord, C., Risi, S., Lambrecht, L., Cook, E. H., Jr, Leventhal, B. L., DiLavore, P. C., et al. (2000). The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30(3), 205–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mullen, E. M. (1995). Mullen Scales of Early Learning. Circle Pines MN: American Guidance Services Inc.Google Scholar
- Patterson, P. H. (2011). Maternal infection and immune involvement in autism. Trends Molecular Medicine.Google Scholar
- SAS. (2002). SAS (Statistical Analysis Software). 9.1.3 ed. Cary, NC; Statistical Analysis Software Institute.Google Scholar
- Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (1984). Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales Interview Edition Expanded Form Manual. Circle Pines: American Guidance Services Inc.Google Scholar