Using Time-delay to Improve Social Play Skills with Peers for Children with Autism
- 1.5k Downloads
Interventions that teach social communication and play skills are crucial for the development of children with autism. The time delay procedure is effective in teaching language acquisition, social use of language, discrete behaviors, and chained activities to individuals with autism and developmental delays. In this study, three boys with autism, attending a non-public school, were taught play activities that combined a play sequence with requesting peer assistance, using a graduated time delay procedure. A multiple-baseline across subjects design demonstrated the success of this procedure to teach multiple-step social play sequences. Results indicated an additional gain of an increase in pretend play by one of the participants. Two also demonstrated a generalization of the skills learned through the time delay procedure.
KeywordsAutism Time Delay Social Skills Play Skills Task Analysis Classroom Peer Mediated
This study was conducted as part of a thesis project in the Charter College of Education in the Division of Special Education and Counseling at California State University, Los Angeles. We would like to acknowledge the participant children, their peers, families and teachers who participated in this study. Your participation may help many students with autism to improve social interactions with peers. Also, we appreciate the Director of the school programs for granting us permission to conduct the study in her setting and staff who assisted with data collection.
- American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders – text revision (Fourth Edn.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
- DiSalvo, C., & Oswald, D. (2002). Peer-mediated interventions to increase social interaction of children with autism: Consideration of peer expectancies. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 17(4), 198–207.Google Scholar
- Kamps, D., Royer, J., Dugan, E., Kravits, T., Gonzalez-Lopez, A., Garcia, J., Carnazzo, K., Morrison, L., & Garrison Kane, L. (2002). Peer training to facilitate social interaction for elementary students with autism and their peers. Exceptional Children, 68(2), 173–187.Google Scholar
- Schuster, J. W., Morse, T. E., Ault, M. J., Doyle, P. M., Crawford, M. R., & Wolery, M. (1998). Constant time delay with chained tasks: A review of the literature. Education and Treatment of Children, 21(1), 74–107.Google Scholar
- Schwartz, I. S., Anderson, S. R., & Halle, J. W. (1989). Training teachers to use naturalistic time delay: Effects on teacher behavior and on the language use of students. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 14(1), 48–57.Google Scholar
- Strain, P. S., & Fox, J. J. (1981). Peers as behavior change agents for withdrawn classmates. In B. B. Lahey & A. E. Kazdin (Eds.), Advances in clinical child psychology (Vol. 4, pp. 167–198). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Wall, M. E., & Gast, D. L. (1997). Caregivers’ use of constant time delay to teach leisure skills to adolescents or young adults with moderate or severe intellectual disabilities. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 32(4), 340–356.Google Scholar
- Wolery, M., Holcombe, A., Cybriwsky, C., Doyle, P. M., Schuster, J. W., Ault, M. J., & Gast, D. L. (1992). Constant time delay with discrete responses: A review of effectiveness and demographic, procedural, and methodological parameters. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 13, 239–266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar