This study describes a longitudinal design (following subjects described in Rutherford & Rogers [2003, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder, 33, 289–302]) to test for predictors of pretend play competence in a group of children with autism. We tested the hypothesis that developmental change in pretend play performance can be predicted by earlier measures of either executive function, intersubjectivity, imitation, or general development. Participants at the time of follow-up testing were 28 children with autistic disorder (mean chronological age (CA) 57.6 months), 18 children with other developmental disorders (mean CA 59.0 months), and 27 typically developing children (mean CA 30.1 months). Children with autism were profoundly delayed given both competence (prompted) measures as well as performance (spontaneous) measures. Joint attention at time 1 strongly and uniquely predicted pretend play development.
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The same analyses done using play scores at time 1 as a true covariate (i.e., entered into the model even before group diagnosis) yielded the same results, albeit with the expected drop in power when using additional variables).
It should be noted however, that for the AD group, when analyzed separately, there was a significant relationship between JA and Imitation (r = .44, P = .03).
Note that in a hierarchical regression in which MA, imitation and spatial reversal are forced in before JA, JA still predicts a significant amount of variance in spontaneous pretend play development (P = .002) whereas no other predictor, while forced in ahead of JA, predicts a significant amount of variance.
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SJR and SH were partially supported by National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Grant #PO1HD35468. SJR was also supported by National Institute of Deafness and Communication Disorders NIDCD Grant #R21 DC05574. The support of the Developmental Psychobiology Research Group and the Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism are gratefully acknowledged.
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Rutherford, M.D., Young, G.S., Hepburn, S. et al. A Longitudinal Study of Pretend Play in Autism. J Autism Dev Disord 37, 1024–1039 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-006-0240-9
- Pretend play
- Longitudinal study