Skip to main content
Log in

Asian Indian American Parental Help-Seeking Intentions for ADHD

  • Published:
Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology Aims and scope Submit manuscript


Minoritized ethnic groups experience both delay to treatment and low rate of treatment contact for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To date, Asian Indian Americans have been excluded completely from ADHD help-seeking research. To fill this void, the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used to investigate the influence of race/ethnicity on parents’ help-seeking intentions for their child’s elevated ADHD symptoms. Parents (n = 191, 53% Asian Indian American, 47% European American; 63.9% fathers) of treatment naïve children at high risk for ADHD completed an online survey to assess their recognition of ADHD, knowledge of ADHD etiology, attitudes towards ADHD treatment, subjective norms regarding ADHD treatment, perceived control over their ADHD help-seeking behavior, and intention to seek help for their child’s elevated ADHD symptoms. Hierarchical linear regressions demonstrated that perceived behavioral control independently predicted intention to seek help in the total sample and may be more impactful for European American parents than Asian Indian American parents. In contrast, subjective norms were more influential for help-seeking intentions among Asian Indian American parents. However, attitudes towards ADHD were not significantly associated with the intention to seek help among both ethnicities. Asian Indian American parents endorsed lower levels of biopsychosocial etiology beliefs. Together, the results inform possible methods of increasing treatment engagement for both groups of parents who have children at high risk for ADHD.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1

Similar content being viewed by others


Download references


The authors did not receive support from any organization for the submitted work.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



The study was conceptualized and designed by Nandini Jhawar under the supervision of Kevin Antshel. Material preparation, data collection and analyses were performed by Nandini Jhawar. The first draft of the manuscript was written by Nandini Jhawar, and both authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Nandini Jhawar.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest or competing interests to declare.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This study was approved by the institutional review board at Syracuse University (#20–356).

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Electronic Supplementary Material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary Material 1

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Jhawar, N., Antshel, K. Asian Indian American Parental Help-Seeking Intentions for ADHD. Res Child Adolesc Psychopathol 51, 1551–1563 (2023).

Download citation

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: