We aimed to typify prosocial characteristics of aggressive youth. We classified early adolescents based on daily configurations of prosocial behavior and autonomous prosocial motivations (performing prosocial behavior for identified and intrinsic reasons) and controlled prosocial motivations (performing prosocial behavior for external and introjected reasons) and explored the links between the obtained sub-groups and peer aggression. The sample included 242 Israeli six-graders [Mage = 11.96 (SD = 0.18), 50% girls] and their teachers. At the daily level, adolescents self-reported on prosocial behaviors and their autonomous and controlled prosocial motivations for ten consecutive days. At the trait level, adolescents reported on global, reactive, and proactive peer aggression. Teachers reported on adolescents’ global peer aggression. Using multilevel latent profile analysis, we identified four day-level profiles of prosociality: ‘high prosocial autonomous’ (39% of days), ‘low prosocial’ (35%), ‘average prosocial controlled’ (14%), and ‘high prosocial bi-motivation’ (13%). At the adolescent level, we identified four sub-groups, each characterized by one dominant daily profile: ‘stable high autonomy’ (33% of adolescents); ‘stable high bi-motivation’ (12%); ‘often average controlled’ (16%); ‘often low’ (39%). Higher self-reported aggressive adolescents, particularly proactive aggressive, had the least chance of being in the ‘stable high autonomy’ sub-group of all sub-groups. Teacher-reported aggressive adolescents had the least likelihood of being in the ‘stable high autonomy’ sub-group and the most likelihood of being in the ‘often low’ sub-group. In sum, peer aggression is a function of the configured phenomenology of prosocial behavior and motivations, with high prosocial autonomously motivated youth being the least aggressive.
This is a preview of subscription content,to check access.
Access this article
Prosocial behavior reflects engagement level in prosocial acts.
We refer to the combination of prosocial behavior and motivation as ‘prosociality’.
In accordance with ethical considerations, the study did not ask students about family income or parental education.
In a parallel series of models, we estimated the covariances among latent profile indicators, holding these equal across profiles. This set of solutions yielded profiles and fit indices similar to those of the more parsimonious model (i.e., covariances were set to zero) and is presented in Table S3 in the Supplemental Material. Models with freely estimated indicators variances did not converge.
Additional analyses on sex difference in Level 2 sub-groups are listed in Supplemental Materials (Table S2 and Figure S1 in Supplemental Material). Tests of potential influences of adolescents nested within school classes did not normally converge. Considering the small variation in study constructs at the school class level, it is less likely that school class assignment strongly influenced the results (see Table S1 in Supplemental Materials).
Aquino, K., & Americus, R. (2002). The self-importance of moral identity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83(6), 1423–1440. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.523.
Arbel, R., Maciejewski, D. F., Ben-Yehuda, M., Shnaider, S., Benari, B., & Benita, M. (2022). Prosocial behavior and aggression in the daily school lives of early adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. https://doi.org/10.1007/S10964-022-01616-2.
Archer, J., & Coyne, S. M. (2005). An integrated review of indirect, relational, and social aggression. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 9(3), 212–230. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327957PSPR0903_2.
Assor, A., Roth, G., & Deci, E. L. (2004). The emotional costs of parents’ conditional regard: A self-determination theory analysis. Journal of Personality, 72, 1.
Balliet, D., Molho, C., Columbus, S., & Dores Cruz, T. D. (2022). Prosocial and punishment behaviors in everyday life. Current Opinion in Psychology, 43, 278–283. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.COPSYC.2021.08.015.
Bayar, Y., Sayıl, M., & Kındap Tepe, Y. (2020). The relationship of autonomous motivation to prosocial behavior: Mediator role of prosocial friends and friendship quality among Turkish adolescents. Research on Education and Psychology. http://dergipark.org.tr/repJune2020.4
Benish-Weisman, M. (2015). The interplay between values and aggression in adolescence: A longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 51(5), 677. https://doi.org/10.1037/DEV0000015.
Benjamini, Y., & Yekutieli, D. (2001). The control of the false discovery rate in multiple testing under dependency. The Annals of Statistics, 29, 1165–1188. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2674075.
Bettencourt, A. F., Musci, R., Clemans, K. H., Carinci, J., & Ialongo, N. S. (2017). Patterns of peer- and teacher-rated aggression, victimization, and prosocial behavior in an urban, predominantly african american preadolescent sample: Associations with peer-perceived characteristics. Journal of School Psychology, 65, 83–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JSP.2017.07.003.
Bevilacqua, L., Hale, D., Barker, E. D., & Viner, R. (2018). Conduct problems trajectories and psychosocial outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27(10), 1239–1260. https://doi.org/10.1007/S00787-017-1053-4/TABLES/4.
Blasi, A. (1983). Moral cognition and moral action: A theoretical perspective. Developmental Review, 3(2), 178–210. https://doi.org/10.1016/0273-2297(83)90029-1.
Bolger, & Laurenceau, J. (2013). Intensive longitudinal methods: An introduction to diary and experience sampling research. Guilford Press.
Boxmeyer, C. L., Miller, S., Romero, D. E., Powell, N. P., Jones, S., Qu, L., Tueller, S., & Lochman, J. E. (2021). Mindful coping power: Comparative effects on children’s reactive aggression and self-regulation. Brain Sciences, 11(9), https://doi.org/10.3390/BRAINSCI11091119.
Cabrera, M. C., Larrañaga, E., & Yubero, S. (2022). Bullying/cyberbullying in secondary education: A comparison between secondary schools in rural and urban contexts. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal 2022, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1007/S10560-022-00882-0
Caprara, G. V., Dodge, K. A., Pastorelli, C., & Zelli, A. (2006). The effects of marginal deviations on behavioral development. European Psychologist, 11(2), 79–89. https://doi.org/10.1027/1016-9040.11.2.79.
Caprara, G. V., Kanacri, B. P. L., Gerbino, M., Zuffianò, A., Alessandri, G., Vecchio, G., Caprara, E., Pastorelli, C., & Bridglall, B. (2014). Positive effects of promoting prosocial behavior in early adolescence: Evidence from a school-based intervention. https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025414531464, 38(4),386–396. https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025414531464
Carlo, G., & Padilla-Walker, L. (2020). Adolescents’ prosocial behaviors through a multidimensional and multicultural lens. Child Development Perspectives, 14(4), 265–272.
Carlo, G., & Randall, B. A. (2002). The development of a measure of prosocial behaviors for late adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 31(1), 31–44.
Carrizales, A., Branje, S., & Lannegrand, L. (2021). Disentangling between- and within-person associations between empathy and prosocial behaviours during early adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 93, 114–125. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ADOLESCENCE.2021.10.006.
Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. A. (1996). Equifinality and multifinality in developmental psychopathology. Development and psychopathology, 8(4), 597–600.
Cohen, N., & Arbel, R. (2020). On the benefits and costs of extrinsic emotion regulation to the provider: Toward a neurobehavioral model. Cortex; A Journal Devoted To The Study Of The Nervous System And Behavior, 130, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2020.05.011.
Collie, R. (2022). Social-emotional need satisfaction, prosocial motivation, and students’ positive behavioral and well-being outcomes. Social Psychology of Education, 25, 399–424. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11218-022-09691-w.
Crothers, L. M., & Levinson, E. M. (2004). Assessment of bullying: A review of methods and instruments. Journal of Counseling & Development, 82(4), 496–503. https://doi.org/10.1002/J.1556-6678.2004.TB00338.X.
Cui, L., Colasante, T., Malti, T., Ribeaud, D., & Eisner, M. P. (2016). Dual trajectories of reactive and proactive aggression from mid-childhood to early adolescence: Relations to sensation seeking, risk taking, and moral reasoning. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44(4), 663–675. https://doi.org/10.1007/S10802-015-0079-7/TABLES/4.
Davidov, M., Vaish, A., Knafo-Noam, A., & Hastings, P. D. (2016). The motivational foundations of prosocial behavior from adevelopmental perspective: Evolutionary roots and key psychological mechanisms. Child Development, 87(6), 1655–1667. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12639. Introduction to the special section.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2012). Self-determination theory. In Handbook of theories of social psychology: Volume 1 (pp. 416–437). Sage Publications. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446249215.N21
Dodge, K. A., Harnish, J. D., Lochman, J. E., Bates, J. E., & Pettit, G. S. (1997). Reactive and proactive aggression in school children and psychiatrically impaired chronically assaultive youth. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106(1), 37–51. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.106.1.37.
Dodge, K. A., Malone, P. S., Lansford, J. E., Sorbring, E., Skinner, A. T., Tapanya, S., Tirado, L. M. U., Zelli, A., Alampay, L. P., Al-Hassan, S. M., Bacchini, D., Bombi, A. S., Bornstein, M. H., Chang, L., Deater-Deckard, K., Di Giunta, L., Oburu, P., & Pastorelli, C. (2015). Hostile attributional bias and aggressive behavior in global context. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112(30), 9310–9315. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1418572112.
Donald, J. N., Bradshaw, E. L., Conigrave, J. H., Parker, P. D., Byatt, L. L., Noetel, M., & Ryan, R. M. (2021). Paths to the light and dark sides of human nature: A meta-analytic review of the prosocial benefits of autonomy and the antisocial costs of control. Psychological Bulletin, 147(9), 921–946. https://doi.org/10.1037/BUL0000338.
Eisenberg, N., VanSchyndel, S. K., & Spinrad, T. L. (2016). Prosocial motivation: Inferences from an opaque body of work. Child Development, 87(6), 1668–1678. https://doi.org/10.1111/CDEV.12638.
Enders. (2010). Applied missing data analysis. Guilford Press. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2010-13190-000.
Evans, S. C., Dίaz, K. I., Callahan, K. P., Wolock, E. R., & Fite, P. J. (2021). Parallel trajectories of proactive and reactive aggression in middle childhood and their outcomes in early adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 49(4), https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-020-00709-5.
Fuligni, A. J. (2019). The need to contribute during adolescence. Perspectives on Psychological Science: A Journal of the Association for Psychological Science, 14(3), 331–343. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691618805437.
Gini, G., Thornberg, R., Bussey, K., Angelini, F., & Pozzoli, T. (2022). Longitudinal links of individual and collective morality with adolescents’ peer aggression. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 51(3), 524–539. https://doi.org/10.1007/S10964-021-01518-9/FIGURES/1.
Goodman, R. (1997). The strengths and difficulties questionnaire: A research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 38(5), 581–586. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1997.tb01545.x.
Habashi, M. M., Graziano, W. G., & Hoover, A. E. (2016). Searching for the prosocial personality: A big five approach to linking personality and prosocial behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 42(9), 1177–1192. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167216652859/ASSET/IMAGES/LARGE/10.1177_0146167216652859-Fig.
Hardy, S. A., & Carlo, G. (2011). Moral identity: What is it, how does it develop, and is it linked to moral action? Wiley Online Library, 5(3), 212–218. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-8606.2011.00189.x.
Hardy, S. A., Dollahite, D. C., Johnson, N., & Christensen, J. B. (2014). Adolescent motivations to engage in pro-social behaviors and abstain from health-risk behaviors: A self-determination theory approach. Journal of Personality, 83(5), 479–490. https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12123.
Henry, K. L., & Muthen, B. (2010). Multilevel latent class analysis: An application of adolescent smoking typologies with individual and contextual predictors. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 17(2), 193. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705511003659342.
Heron, K. E., Everhart, R. S., McHale, S. M., & Smyth, J. M. (2017). Using mobile-technology-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods with youth: A systematic review and recommendations. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 42(10), 1087–1107. https://doi.org/10.1093/JPEPSY/JSX078.
Hubbard, J. A., McAuliffe, M. D., Morrow, M. T., & Romano, L. J. (2010). Reactive and proactive aggression in childhood and adolescence: Precursors, outcomes, processes, experiences, and measurement. Journal of Personality, 78(1), 95–118. https://doi.org/10.1111/J.1467-6494.2009.00610.X.
Hymel, S., & Swearer, S. M. (2015). Four decades of research on school bullying: An introduction. American Psychologist, 70(4), 293.
Jambon, M., Colasante, T., Peplak, J., & Malti, T. (2019). Anger, sympathy, and children’s reactive and proactive aggression: Testing a differential correlate hypothesis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 47(6), 1013–1024. https://doi.org/10.1007/S10802-018-0498-3/TABLES/2.
Juvonen, J., & Graham, S. (2014). Bullying in schools: The power of bullies and the plight of victims. Annual Review of Psychology, 65, 159–185. https://doi.org/10.1146/ANNUREV-PSYCH-010213-115030.
Kilian, J. M. (2011). A school intervention to increase prosocial behavior and improve academic performance of at-risk students. Improving Schools, 14, 65–83. https://doi.org/10.1177/1365480206061994.
Koestner, R., Lekes, N., Powers, T. A., & Chicoine, E. (2002). Attaining personal goals: Self-concordance plus implementation intentions equals success. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83(1), 231. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.206.
Krettenauer, T. (2020). Moral identity as a goal of moral action: A self-determination theory perspective. Journal of Moral Education, 49(3), 330–345. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057240.2019.1698414.
Ladd, G. W., & Kochenderfer-Ladd, B. (2002). Identifying victims of peer aggression from early to middle childhood: Analysis of cross-informant data for concordance, estimation of relational adjustment, prevalence of victimization, and characteristics of identified victims. Psychological Assessment, 14(1), 74–96. https://doi.org/10.1037//1040-35220.127.116.11.
Little, T. D., Brauner, J., Jones, S. M., Nock, M. K., & Hawley, P. H. (2003). Rethinking aggression: A typological examination of the functions of aggression. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 49(3), 343–369. https://doi.org/10.1353/MPQ.2003.0014.
Malti, T., & Krettenauer, T. (2013). The relation of moral emotion attributions to prosocial and antisocial behavior: A meta-analysis. Child Development, 84(2), 397–412. https://doi.org/10.1111/J.1467-8624.2012.01851.X.
McGinley, M., Pierotti, S. L., & Carlo, G. (2021). Latent profiles of multidimensional prosocial behaviors: An examination of prosocial personality groups. The Journal of Social Psychology, 162(2), 245–261. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.2021.1881031.
Megías-Robles, A., Gómez-Leal, R., Gutiérrez-Cobo, M. J., Cabello, R., & Fernández-Berrocal, P. (2022). The role of sensitivity to reward and punishment in aggression. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 37(13–14), NP12014–NP12039. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260520986275.
Memmott-Elison, M., Padilla-Walker, L. M., Yorgason, J. B., & Coyne, S. M. (2020). Intra-individual associations between intentional self-regulation and prosocial behavior during adolescence: Evidence for bidirectionality. Journal of Adolescence, 80, 29–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ADOLESCENCE.2020.02.001.
Milyavskaya, M., Inzlicht, M., Hope, N., & Koestner, R. (2015). Saying ‘no’ to temptation: Want-to motivation improves self-regulation by reducing temptation rather than by increasing self-control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 109(4), 677–693. https://doi.org/10.1037/PSPP0000045.
Moore, C. C., Hubbard, J. A., Bookhout, M. K., & Mlawer, F. (2019). Relations between reactive and proactive aggression and daily emotions in adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 47(9), 1495–1507. https://doi.org/10.1007/S10802-019-00533-6/TABLES/4.
Muthén, L., & Muthen, B. (2017). Mplus user’s guide: Statistical analysis with latent variables, user’s guide. Methen and Methen.
Nagin, D. S., Tremblay, R. E., Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (2005). Developmenatl trajectory groups: Fact of a useful statistical fiction? Criminology, 43(4), 873–904. https://doi.org/10.1111/J.1745-9125.2005.00026.X.
Nantel-Vivier, A., Pihl, R., Côté, S., & Tremblay, R. (2014). Developmental association of prosocial behaviour with aggression, anxiety and depression from infancy to preadolescence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 55(10), 1135–1144. https://doi.org/10.1111/JCPP.12235.
Nezlek, J. (2020). Diary studies in social and personality psychology: An introduction with some recommendations and suggestions. Social Psychological Bulletin, 15(2), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.32872/SPB.2679.
Nylund-Gibson, K., & Choi, A. Y. (2018). Ten frequently asked questions about latent class analysis. Undefined, 4(4), 440–461. https://doi.org/10.1037/TPS0000176.
Nylund, K. L., Asparouhov, T., & Muthén, B. O. (2007). Deciding on the number of classes in latent class analysis and growth mixture modeling: A Monte Carlo simulation study. Structural Equation Modeling, 14(4), 535–569. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705510701575396.
Patrick, R. B., Bodine, A. J., Gibbs, J. C., & Basinger, K. S. (2018). What accounts for prosocial behavior? Roles of moral identity, moral judgment, and self-efficacy beliefs. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 179(5), 231–245. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221325.2018.1491472.
Pavey, L., Greitemeyer, T., & Sparks, P. (2012). I help because I want to, not because you tell me to’: Empathy increases autonomously motivated helping. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 38(5), 681–689. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167211435940.
Peetz, J., Milyavskaya, & · Marina. (2021). A self-determination theory approach to predicting daily prosocial behavior. Motivation and Emotion, 45, 617–630. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-021-09902-5.
Pozzoli, T., Gini, G., & Thornberg, R. (2016). Bullying and defending behavior: The role of explicit and implicit moral cognition. Journal of School Psychology, 59, 67–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2016.09.005.
Raine, A., Dodge, K., Loeber, R., Gatzke-Kopp, L., Lynam, D., Reynolds, C., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Liu, J. (2006). The reactive–proactive aggression questionnaire: Differential correlates of reactive and proactive aggression in adolescent boys. Aggressive Behavior, 32(2), 159. https://doi.org/10.1002/AB.20115.
Raposa, E. B., Laws, H. B., & Ansell, E. B. (2016). Prosocial behavior mitigates the negative effects of stress in everyday life. Clinical Psychological Science, 4(4), 691–698. https://doi.org/10.1177/2167702615611073.
Ritchie, M. B., Neufeld, R. W. J., Yoon, M., Li, A., & Mitchell, D. G. V. (2022). Predicting youth aggression with empathy and callous unemotional traits: A Meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 102186. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.CPR.2022.102186.
Robson, D. A., Allen, M. S., & Howard, S. J. (2020). Self-regulation in Childhood as a predictor of future outcomes: A Meta-Analytic Review. Psychological Bulletin, 146(4), 324–354. https://doi.org/10.1037/BUL0000227.
Roth, G. (2008). Perceived parental conditional regard and autonomy support as predictors of young adults’ self- versus other-oriented prosocial tendencies. Journal of Personality, 76(3), 513–534. https://doi.org/10.1111/J.1467-6494.2008.00494.X.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2017). Self–determination theory an introduction and overview. In Self-Determination Theory: Basic psychological needs in motivation, development, and sellness. Guilford Press eBook. https://www.routledge.com/Self-Determination-Theory-Basic-Psychological-Needs-in-Motivation-Development/Ryan-Deci/p/book/9781462538966
Schacter, H. L., & Margolin, G. (2018). When it feels good to give: Depressive symptoms, daily prosocial behavior, and adolescent mood. Emotion, 19(5), 923–927. https://doi.org/10.1037/emo0000494.
Scharf, M., & Goldner, L. (2018). If you really love me, you will do/be… parental psychological control and its implications for children’s adjustment. Developmental Review, 49, 16–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.DR.2018.07.002.
Schmidt, A. (2020). The bright and the dark side of peer relationships: Differential effects of relatedness satisfaction and frustration at school on affective well-being in children’s daily lives. Developmental Psychology, 56(8), 1532. https://doi.org/10.1037/DEV0000997.
Snippe, E., Jeronimus, B. F., aan, het Rot, M., Bos, E. H., de Jonge, P., & Wichers, M. (2018). The reciprocity of prosocial behavior and positive affect in daily life. Journal of Personality, 86(2), 139–146. https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12299
Soenens, B., Deci, E. L., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2017). How parents contribute to children’s psychological health: The critical role of psychological need support. Development of Self-Determination Through the Life-Course,171–187. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-024-1042-6_13/FIGURES/1
Tampke, E. C., Fite, P. J., & Cooley, J. L. (2020). Bidirectional associations between affective empathy and proactive and reactive aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 46, 317–326. https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.21891.
Vaish, A., & Hepach, R. (2019). The development of prosocial wmotions. Emotion Review, 12(4), 259–273. https://doi.org/10.1177/1754073919885014.
Vermunt, J. K. (2016). 7. Multilevel latent class models. Sociological Methodology, 33(1), https://doi.org/10.1111/J.0081-1750.2003.T01-1-00131.X.
Vuoksimaa, E., Rose, R. J., Pulkkinen, L., Palviainen, T., Rimfeld, K., Lundström, S., Bartels, M., van Beijsterveldt, C., Hendriks, A., de Zeeuw, E. L., Plomin, R., Lichtenstein, P., Boomsma, D. I., & Kaprio, J. (2021). Higher aggression is related to poorer academic performance in compulsory education. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 62(3), 327–338. https://doi.org/10.1111/JCPP.13273.
Weinstein, N., & Ryan, R. M. (2010). When helping helps: Autonomous motivation for prosocial behavior and its influence on well-being for the helper and recipient. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98(2), 222–244. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016984.
Wentzel, K., Filisetti, L., & Looney, L. (2007). Adolescent prosocial behavior: The role of self-processes and contextual cues. Child Development, 78(3), 895–910. https://doi.org/10.1111/J.1467-8624.2007.01039.X.
Wurster, T., & Xie, H. (2014). Aggressive and prosocial behaviors: The social success of bistrategic preadolescents. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 38(4), 367–377. https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025414531463/ASSET/IMAGES/LARGE/10.1177_0165025414531463-Fig.
Xia, M., Bray, B. C., & Fosco, G. M. (2021). Triadic family structures and their day-to-day dynamics from an adolescent perspective: A multilevel latent profile analysis. Family Process. https://doi.org/10.1111/FAMP.12722.
Conflict of interest
We have no known conflict of interest to disclose.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Electronic Supplementary Material
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
About this article
Cite this article
Arbel, R., Xia, M., Ben-Yehuda, M. et al. ‘Prosociality’ in Daily School Life and Early Adolescents’ Peer Aggression: A Multilevel Latent Profile Analysis Approach. Res Child Adolesc Psychopathol 51, 1371–1387 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-023-01079-4