Social connections are critical for mental and physical health; however, the developmental pathways to children’s social connectedness outcomes are not well understood. This study examined the pathways from children’s inhibitory control at 4 years to two social connectedness outcomes – loneliness and friendship quality at age 10 – through behavioral problems at age 7. As part of a longitudinal study (N = 291, 54% girls), children’s inhibitory control was assessed via a Go/No-Go task when children were 4 years old. Mothers reported on children’s behavioral problems at ages 4 and 7 years. Children reported on their friendship quality and loneliness at ages 7 and 10 years. Greater inhibitory control at 4 years predicted lower behavioral problems at 7 years, which in turn predicted better friendship quality and lower loneliness at 10 years. Indirect effects from inhibitory control at 4 years to loneliness and friendship quality at 10 years via behavioral problems at 7 years were significant. Findings suggest that inhibitory control in early childhood may play a key role for the development of social connectedness in middle childhood via its impact on children’s behavioral problems.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Data will be available from the OSF open science public repository.
Data code will be uploaded as a supplement.
Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA school-age forms and profiles: An integrated system of multi-informant assessment. University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.
Asher, S. R., Hymel, S., & Renshaw, P. D. (1984). Loneliness in children. Child Development, 55(4), 1456–1464. https://doi.org/10.2307/1130015
Bagwell, C. L., & Schmidt, M. E. (2013). Friendships in childhood and adolescence. Guilford Press.
Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497–529. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.117.3.497
Blair, B. L., Perry, N. B., O'Brien, M., Calkins, S. D., Keane, S. P., & Shanahan, L. (2014). The indirect effects of maternal emotion socialization on friendship quality in middle childhood. Developmental Psychology, 50(2), 566–576. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0033532
Bodnar, L. E., Prahme, M. C., Cutting, L. E., Denckla, M. B., & Mahone, E. M. (2007). Construct validity of parent ratings of inhibitory control. Child Neuropsychology, 13(4), 345–362.
Cacioppo, J. T., & Cacioppo, S. (2014). Social relationships and health: The toxic effects of perceived social isolation. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 8, 58–72. https://doi.org/10.1111/spc3.12087
Calkins, S. D., & Fox, N. A. (2002). Self-regulatory processes in early personality development: A multilevel approach to the study of childhood social withdrawal and aggression. Development and Psychopathology, 14(3), 477–498.
Campbell, S. B., Spieker, S., Burchinal, M., Poe, M. D., Belsky, J., Booth-LaForce, C., Bradley, R., Brownell, C. A., Clarke-Stewart, K. A., Cox, M., Friedman, S. L., Kelly, J. F., Knoke, B., McCartney, K., O’Brien, M., Tresch Owen, M., Parke, R., Pianta, R., Lowe Vandell, D., & Weinraub, M. (2006). Trajectories of aggression from toddlerhood to age 9 predict academic and social functioning through age 12. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 8, 791–800. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01636.x
Caspi, A., Harrington, H. L., Moffitt, T. E., Milne, B. J., & Poulton, R. (2006). Socially isolated children 20 years later: Risk of cardiovascular disease. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 160, 805–811. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.160.8.805
Cassidy, J., & Asher, S. R. (1992). Loneliness and peer relations in young children. Child Development, 63(2), 350–365.
Clark, C. A. C., Pritchard, V. E., & Woodward, L. J. (2010). Preschool executive functioning abilities predict early mathematics achievement. Developmental Psychology, 46(5), 1176–1191. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0019672
Diamond, A. (2013). Executive functions. Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 135–168. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143750
Durston, S., Thomas, K. M., Yang, Y., Ulu, A. M., Zimmerman, R. D., Casey, B. J. B., Ulug, A. M., Zimmerman, R. D., & Casey, B. J. B. (2002). A neural basis for the development of inhibitory control. Developmental Science, 5(4), F9–F16. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-7687.00235
Eisenberg, N., Vaughan, J., & Hofer, C. (2009). Temperament, self-regulation, and peer social competence. In K.H, Rubin, W. M. Bukowski, & B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups (pp. 473–489). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Ellis, A., Ahmed, S. F., Zeytinoglu, S., Isbell, E., Calkins, S. D., Leerkes, E. M., ... & Davis- Kean, P. E. (2021). Reciprocal associations between executive function and academic achievement: A conceptual replication of Schmitt et al. (2017). Journal of Numerical Cognition, 7(3), 453–472.
Enders, C. K., & Bandalos, D. L. (2001). The relative performance of full information maximum likelihood estimation for missing data in structural equation models. Structural Equation Modeling, 8(3), 430–457.
Fox, N. A., & Calkins, S. D. (2003). The development of self-control of emotion: Intrinsic and extrinsic influences. In Motivation and Emotion, 27, 7–26. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023622324898
Gagne, J. R., & Saudino, K. J. (2010). Wait for it! A twin study of inhibitory control in early childhood. Behavior Genetics, 40, 327–337. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10519-009-9316-6
Galanaki, E. (2004). Are children able to distinguish among the concepts of aloneness, loneliness, and solitude? International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28(5), 435–443. https://doi.org/10.1080/01650250444000153
Garon, N., Bryson, S. E., & Smith, I. M. (2008). Executive function in preschoolers: a review using an integrative framework. Psychological Bulletin, 134(1), 31–60. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.134.1.31
Geeraerts, S. B., Endendijk, J. J., Deković, M., Huijding, J., Deater-Deckard, K., & Mesman, J. (2021). Inhibitory control across the preschool years: Developmental changes and associations with parenting. Child Development, 92(1), 335–350.
Hane, A. A., Fox, N. A., Henderson, H. A., & Marshall, P. J. (2008). Behavioral reactivity and approach-withdrawal bias in infancy. Developmental Psychology, 44(5), 1491–1496. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012855
Hartup, W. W., & Stevens, N. (1999). Friendships and adaptation across the life span. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 8(3), 76–79.
Hawkley, L. C., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2003). Loneliness and pathways to disease. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 17(1 SUPPL.), 98–105. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0889-1591(02)00073-9
Heinrich, L. M., & Gullone, E. (2006). The clinical significance of loneliness: A literature review. Clinical Psychology Review, 26(6), 695–718. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2006.04.002
Hilton, D. C., Jarrett, M. A., McDonald, K. L., & Ollendick, T. H. (2017). Attention problems as a mediator of the relation between executive function and social problems in a child and adolescent outpatient sample. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 45, 777–788. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-016-0200-6
Holmes, C. J., Kim-Spoon, J., & Deater-Deckard, K. (2016). Linking executive function and peer problems from early childhood through middle adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44(1), 31–42. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-015-0044-5
Holt-Lunstad, J., Smith, T. B., Baker, M., Harris, T., & Stephenson, D. (2015). Loneliness and social isolation as risk factors for mortality: A meta-analytic review. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 10(2), 227–237. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691614568352
Hughes, C. (1998). Finding your marbles: Does preschoolers’ strategic behavior predict later understanding of mind? Developmental Psychology, 34(6), 1326–1339. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-16184.108.40.2066
Inzlicht, M., Bartholow, B. D., & Hirsh, J. B. (2015). Emotional foundations of cognitive control. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 19(3), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2015.01.004
Isbell, E., Calkins, S. D., Swingler, M. M., & Leerkes, E. M. (2018). Attentional fluctuations in preschoolers: Direct and indirect relations with task accuracy, academic readiness, and school performance. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 167, 388–403.
Jose, P. E., Ryan, N., & Pryor, J. (2012). Does social connectedness promote a greater sense of well-Being in adolescence over time? Journal of Research on Adolescence, 22(2), 235–251. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2012.00783.x
Kaufman, J., Birmaher, B., Brent, D., Rao, U., Flynn, C., Moreci, P., ... & Ryan, N. (1997). Schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school-age children-present and lifetime version (K-SADS-PL): Initial reliability and validity data. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 980–988.
King, K. M., Lengua, L. J., & Monahan, K. C. (2013). Individual differences in the development of self-regulation during pre-adolescence: Connections to context and adjustment. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41(1), 57–69. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-012-9665-0
Klenberg, L., Korkman, M., & Lahti-Nuuttila, P. (2001). Differential development of attention and executive functions in 3-to 12-year-old Finnish children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 20(1), 407–428.
Kochanska, G., Murray, K. T., & Harlan, E. T. (2000). Effortful control in early childhood: continuity and change, antecedents, and implications for social development. Developmental Psychology, 36, 220–232. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-16220.127.116.11
Ladd, G. W., Kochenderfer, B. J., & Coleman, C. C. (1996). Friendship quality as a predictor of young children’s early school adjustment. Child Development, 67(3), 1103–1118.
Lagasse, L. L., Conradt, E., Karalunas, S. L., Dansereau, L. M., Butner, J. E., Shankaran, S., Bada, H., Bauer, C. R., Whitaker, T. M., & Lester, B. M. (2016). Transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and problem behavior from early childhood to early adolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 28(3), 743–756.
Lansford, J. E., Malone, P. S., Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., & Bates, J. E. (2010). Developmental cascades of peer rejection, social information processing biases, and aggression during middle childhood. Development and Psychopathology, 22(3), 593–602.
Laursen, B., & Hartl, A. C. (2013). Understanding loneliness during adolescence: Developmental changes that increase the risk of perceived social isolation. Journal of Adolescence, 36, 1261–1268. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2013.06.003
Lieb, R. W., & Bohnert, A. M. (2017). Relations Between Executive Functions, Social Impairment, and Friendship Quality on Adjustment Among High Functioning Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 47(9), 2861–2872. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-017-3205-2
Little, T. D. (2013). Longitudinal structural equation modeling. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Liu, J., Xiao, B., Hipson, W. E., Coplan, R. J., Li, D., & Chen, X. (2017). Self-control, peer preference, and loneliness in Chinese children: A three-year longitudinal study. Social Development, 26(4), 876–890. https://doi.org/10.1111/sode.12224
MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., & Williams, J. (2004). Confidence limits for the indirect effect: Distribution of the product and resampling methods. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 39(1), 99–128. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327906mbr3901_4
Maes, M., Nelemans, S. A., Danneel, S., Fernández-Castilla, B., Van den Noortgate, W., Goossens, L., & Vanhalst, J. (2019). Loneliness and social anxiety across childhood and adolescence: Multilevel meta-analyses of crosssectional and longitudinal associations. Developmental Psychology, 55(7), 1548–1565. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000719
Marcovitch, S., O’Brien, M., Calkins, S. D., Leerkes, E. M., Weaver, J. M., & Levine, D. W. (2015). A longitudinal assessment of the relation between executive function and theory of mind at 3, 4, and 5 years. Cognitive Development, 33, 40–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogdev.2014.07.001
Maslow, A. H. A. H. H. (1943). A Theory of Human Motivation A Theory of Human Motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4), 370–396. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0054346
Miyake, A., Friedman, N. P., Emerson, M. J., Witzki, A. H., & Howerter, a, & Wager, T. D. (2000). The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “Frontal Lobe” tasks: A latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology, 41, 49–100. https://doi.org/10.1006/cogp.1999.0734
Moilanen, K. L., Shaw, D. S., Dishion, T. J., Gardner, F., & Wilson, M. (2010). Predictors of longitudinal growth in inhibitory control in early childhood. Social Development, 19, 326–347. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2009.00536.x
Monette, S., Bigras, M., & Guay, M. C. (2011). The role of the executive functions in school achievement at the end of Grade 1. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 109(2), 158–173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2011.01.008
Morales, S., Tang, A., Bowers, M., Miller, N., Buzzell, G., Smith, E., Seddio, K., Henderson, A. H., & Fox, N. (2021). Infant temperament prospectively predicts general psychopathology in childhood. Development and Psychopathology, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579420001996
Mund, M., Freuding, M. M., Möbius, K., Horn, N., & Neyer, F. J. (2019). The stability and change of loneliness across the life span: A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 24, 24–52. https://doi.org/10.1177/1088868319850738
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2017). Mplus User’s Guide. Eigth Edition. Muthén & Muthén.
Nigg, J. T. (2017). Annual Research Review: On the relations among self-regulation, self- control, executive functioning, effortful control, cognitive control, impulsivity, risk-taking, and inhibition for developmental psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 58, 361–383. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12675
Nigg, J. T., Quamma, J. P., Greenberg, M. T., & Kusche, C. A. (1999). A two-year longitudinal study of neuropsychological and cognitive performance in relation to behavioral problems and competencies in elementary school children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27(1), 51–63. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022614407893
Paquette, J. A., & Asher, S. R. (2003). Loneliness and peer relations in childhood. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12(3), 75–78. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.01233
Parker, J. G., & Asher, S. R. (1993). Friendship and friendship quality in middle childhood: Links with peer group acceptance and feelings of loneliness and social dissatisfaction. Developmental Psychology, 29(4), 611–621. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1618.104.22.1681
Perlman, D., & Peplau, L. A. (1981). Toward a social psychology of loneliness. Personal Relationships, 3, 31–56.
Perry, N. B., Dollar, J. M., Calkins, S. D., Keane, S. P., & Shanahan, L. (2018). Childhood self- regulation as a mechanism through which early overcontrolling parenting is associated with adjustment in preadolescence. Developmental Psychology, 54(8), 1542–1554. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000536
Petersen, I. T., Hoyniak, C. P., McQuillan, M. E., Bates, J. E., & Staples, A. D. (2016). Measuring the development of inhibitory control: The challenge of heterotypic continuity. Developmental Review, 40, 25–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2016.02.001
Poulin, F., & Chan, A. (2010). Friendship stability and change in childhood and adolescence. Developmental Review, 30(3), 257–272.
Qualter, P., Brown, S. L., Rotenberg, K. J., Vanhalst, J., Harris, R. A., Goossens, L., Bangee, M., & Munn, P. (2013). Trajectories of loneliness during childhood and adolescence: Predictors and health outcomes. Journal of Adolescence, 36(6), 1283–1293.
Qualter, P., Vanhalst, J., Harris, R., Van Roekel, E., Lodder, G., Bangee, M., Maes, M., & Verhagen, M. (2015). Loneliness Across the Life Span. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 10(2), 250–264. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691615568999
Riggs, N. R., Blair, C. B., & Greenberg, M. T. (2004). Concurrent and 2-Year Longitudinal Relations Between Executive Function and the Behavior of 1st and 2nd Grade Children. Child Neuropsychology (Neuropsychology, Development and Cognition: Section C), 9(4), 267–276. https://doi.org/10.1076/chin.9.4.267.23513
Rose, A. J., & Rudolph, K. D. (2006). A review of sex differences in peer relationship processes: potential trade-offs for the emotional and behavioral development of girls and boys. Psychological Bulletin, 132(1), 98–131. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.132.1.98
Rothbart, M. K. (2011). Becoming who we are: Temperament and personality in development. Guilford Press.
Rothbart, M. K., & Rueda, M. R. (2005). The development of effortful control. In U. Mayr, U. Awh, E., & S. Keele (Eds.), Developing individuality in the human brain: A tribute to Michael I. Posner (pp. 167–188). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
Rubin K., Bukowski W., & Parker J. (2006). Peer interactions, relationships, and groups. In W. Damon, R. Lerner, & N. Eisenberg (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3. Social, emotional, and personality development (6th ed., pp. 571–645). New York: Wiley.
Rubin, K. H., Bowker, J. C., McDonald, K. L., & Menzer, M. (2013). Peer relationships in childhood (pp. 242–475). In P. D. Zelazo (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Developmental Psychology, Vol. 2: Self and Other. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Schinka, K. C., Van Dulmen, M. H. M., Mata, A. D., Bossarte, R., & Swahn, M. (2013). Psychosocial predictors and outcomes of loneliness trajectories from childhood to early adolescence. Journal of Adolescence. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2013.08.002
Snyder, H. R., Miyake, A., & Hankin, B. L. (2015). Advancing understanding of executive function impairments and psychopathology: Bridging the gap between clinical and cognitive approaches. Frontiers in Psychology, 6. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00328
Stanislaw, H., & Todorov, N. (1999). Calculation of signal detection theory measures. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 31(1), 137–149.
Sturaro, C., van Lier, P. A. C., Cuijpers, P., & Koot, H. M. (2011). The Role of Peer Relationships in the Development of Early School-Age Externalizing Problems. Child Development, 82(3), 758–765. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01532.x
Sulik, M. J., Blair, C., Mills-Koonce, R., Berry, D., & Greenberg, M. (2015). Early parenting and the development of externalizing behavior problems: Longitudinal mediation through children’s executive function. Child Development, 86, 1588–1603.
Sullivan, H. S. (1953). The interpersonal theory of psychiatry. Norton.
Swingler, M. M., Isbell, E., Zeytinoglu, S., Calkins, S. D., & Leerkes, E. M. (2018). Maternal behavior predicts neural underpinnings of inhibitory control in preschoolers. Developmental Psychobiology, 60(6), 692–706.
Toplak, M. E., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2013). Practitioner review: Do performance- based measures and ratings of executive function assess the same construct? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(2), 131–143.
Troller-Renfree, S. V., Buzzell, G. A., Bowers, M. E., Salo, V. C., Forman-Alberti, A., Smith, E., Papp, L. J., McDermott, J. M., Pine, D. S., Henderson, H. A., & Fox, N. A. (2019). Development of inhibitory control during childhood and its relations to early temperament and later social anxiety: Unique insights provided by latent growth modeling and signal detection theory. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 60(6), 622–629. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.13025
Urberg, K. A. (1992). Locus of peer influence: Social crowd and best friend. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 21, 439–450. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01537896
Van Lier, P. A. C., & Koot, H. M. (2010). Developmental cascades of peer relations and symptoms of externalizing and internalizing problems from kindergarten to fourth-grade elementary school. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 569–582.
Yang, Y. C., Boen, C., Gerken, K., Li, T., Schorpp, K., & Harris, K. M. (2016). Social relationships and physiological determinants of longevity across the human life span. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113(3), 578–583. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1511085112
Zelazo, P. D., & Cunningham, W. (2007). Executive function: Mechanisms underlying emotion regulation. In J.J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 135–158). New York, NY: Guilford.
Zelazo, P. D., & Carlson, S. M. (2012). Hot and cool executive function in childhood and adolescence: Development and plasticity. Child Development Perspectives, 6, 354–360. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-8606.2012.00246.x
Zeytinoglu, S., Calkins, S. D., Swingler, M. M., & Leerkes, E. M. (2017). Pathways from maternal effortful control to child self-regulation: The role of maternal emotional support. Journal of Family Psychology, 31, 170–180. https://doi.org/10.1037/fam0000271
Zeytinoglu, S., Calkins, S. D., & Leerkes, E. M. (2022). Autonomic profiles and self-regulation outcomes in early childhood. Developmental Science, 25(5), e13215. https://doi.org/10.1111/desc.13215
Zeytinoglu, S., Morales, S., Lorenzo, E. N., Chronis-Tuscano, A., Degnan, K. A., Almas, A. N., Henderson, H., Pine, D. S. & Fox, N. A. (2021). A developmental pathway from early behavioral inhibition to young adults’ anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 60, 1300–1308. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2021.01.021
Zeytinoglu, S., Neuman, K. J., Degnan, K. A., Almas, A. N., Henderson, H., Chronis‐Tuscano, A., Pine, D. S., & Fox, N.A. (2022). Pathways from maternal shyness to adolescent social anxiety. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 63(3), 342–349. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.13477
The authors thank the participating families without whom this study would not have been possible. The authors also thank the research assistants who have collected the data presented in this manuscript.
This research was supported by National Institutes of Health grants, MH093349 and HD017899, granted to Nathan Fox and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) grant F32-MH127869 awarded to Selin Zeytinoglu.
All procedures used were approved by the University of Maryland’s Institutional Review Board. All participant data were deidentified.
Informed consent were obtained from the primary caregivers before data collection at each assessment and children’s assent were obtained for each study opportunity.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Disclosure of Interests
Drs. Zeytinoglu, Morales, Henderson and Fox report no biomedical financial interests or potential conflicts of interests. Dr. Zeytinoglu is currently funded by a NIMH fellowship grant. Dr. Henderson receives research funding from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada and National Institute of Mental Health. Dr. Fox has received grant support from the NIMH, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Science Foundation, the National Institutes of Health Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes consortium, the Russell Sage Foundation, and the Lumos Foundation. He has received royalties from Guilford Press and Harvard University Press. He has received honoraria for lectures to professional audiences.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
About this article
Cite this article
Zeytinoglu, S., Morales, S., Henderson, H.A. et al. A Developmental Pathway from Early Inhibitory Control to Social Connectedness. Res Child Adolesc Psychopathol 51, 805–817 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-023-01023-6